Mobility of Heavy Metals from the University of Nigeria Sewage-Sludge Disposal Site to the Surrounding Soils and Plants

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ABSTRACT

This study was carried out at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka sewage disposable site. The study was to quantify the mineral contents of sewage sludge and assess their mobility in the soil and plants around UNN disposal site. The experimental layout was a 4x3 factorial in RCBD in which distance from the sewage disposal site and soil depth were the two factors under consideration. The distances from sewage pond were 0 (edge), 100, 300 and 2000 m away from the sewage pond with 2000 m serving as control while soil depths were 0 – 40, 40 – 80, and 80 – 20cm. Soil and plant sampling was carried out from three distances in both sewage site and at the control site. Physico-chemical properties of the soil were determined. Four heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb) were determined from the soil, plant samples as well as the sewage sludge. Results showed that the effects of distance and soil depth were significant (P < 0.05) on pH, exchangeable bases, cation exchange capacity, organic matter, total nitrogen, exchangeable acidity and available phosphorous. At the control site there were no differences among soil properties except organic matter that decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with increase in depth. All the chemical properties determined decreased with increase in depth, except exchangeable acidity which increased with increase in depth. Cadmium, Cu, Hg, and Pb, significantly (P < 0.05) decreased as both distance and depth increased. There was an obvious high heavy metal content in the soil of disposal site when compared with the control soil. In the tissues of the three plants (Manihot spp, Zea mays, Pannicum maximum) studied, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb concentrations were significantly different (P < 0.05) at 0, 100, 300 and 2000 m distances. Heavy metal content observed in plant tissues at the disposal site was relatively high when compared to that of the control site. Therefore, it follows that the studies at the University of Nigeria Nsukka sewage disposal site results in an increased concentration of soil property, such as organic matter, macro and micro nutrients. The mobility of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, and Pb) from soil to leaves suggest that all these metals were mobile from soil to plant components. Heavy metal concentrations varied among the tested crop plant, which reflects their differences in their uptake capabilities and their further translocation to the shoot portion of the plant. The bioconcentration factor at both root and leaf tissues of crop plant did not show any abnormal accumulation of heavy metals at sewage site. From the study the heavy metal contents of the sludge, soil and plant species were below toxicity levels when compared to WHO/FAO standards.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Content Page

Title page- - - - - - - - - - - i

Certification- - - - - - - - - - - ii

Dedication- - - - - - - - - - - iii

Acknowledgement- - - - - - - - - - iv

Table of Contents- - - - - - - - - - v

List of Tables- - - - - - - - - - viii

List of Plates - - - - - - - - - - ix

Abstract- - - - - - - - - - - x

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION- - - - - - - - - - 1

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW- - - - - - - - - 5

2.1 Sewage Sludge - - - - - - - - - 5

2.2 Heavy Metal Toxicity and its Mobility - - - - - - 7

2.3 Effect of pH and Organic Matter in Heavy Metal Mobility - - - 9

2.4 Effect of Sewage Sludge Application in Soil - - - - - 10

2.5 Sludge-Soil Interaction - - - - - - - - 20

2.6 Implications of Trace Metal in Soil and Plant - - - - - 23

2.7 Plant Factors Influencing Metal Uptake - - - - - - 25

CHAPTER THREE

MATERIALS AND METHODS - - - - - - - 30

3.1 Site description - - - - - - - - - 30

3.2 The Sewage System - - - - - - - - 30

3.3 Field Sampling - - - - - - - - - 35

3.4. Routine Analysis - - - - - - - - - 35

3.5 Determination of the soil content of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd and Hg) - - 36

3.5 Sample Preparations and Digestion of crop plant for Heavy Metal Determination 36

3.6 Data analysis - - - - - - - - - - 37

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS- - - - - - - - - - - 38

4.1 Sewage sludge - - - - - - - - - - 38

4.2 Physicochemical properties at various distances away from sewage site - 40

4.3 Physicochemical Properties at Various Soil Depths - - - - 42

4.4 The Simple matrix Distance and Depth on Soil Physicochemical Properties- - 44

4.4.1 Soil pH as influenced by sewage disposal - - - - - 44

4.4.2 The Organic Matter Concentration and Nitrogen Content of the Soil - - 44

4.4.3 Soil Exchangeable Bases - - - - - - - 44

4.4.4 Total Exchangeable Acidity (TEA) - - - - - - 45

4.4.5 Available phosphorus - - - - - - - - 45

4.5 Heavy Metals in Soil - - - - - - - - - 49

4.5.1 Effect of distance on heavy metal contents of the soil- - - - 49

4.5.2 The Main Effects of Depth on Selected Heavy Metal Content of the Soil - 51

4.5.3 The Simple matrix of Distance and Depth on the Concentration of the Selected Heavy Metal in Soils - - - - - - - - - 53

4.6 Heavy Metal concentration in Plant - - - - - - 55

4.6.1 Cadmium - - - - - - - - - - 55

4.6.2 Copper - - - - - - - - - - 55

4.6.3 Mercury- - - - - - - - - - 56

4.6.4 Lead- - - - - - - - - - - 56

4.7 The Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) of Cassava -- - - - - 58

4. 8 The Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) of Maize - - - - - 60

4.9 The Bioconcentration Factor (BCF) of Pannicum maximum` - - - 62

CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSION- - - - - - - - - - 65

5.1 Physicochemical Properties of the Soil - - - - - `65

5.2 Heavy metals in soil - - - - - - - - 70

5.3 Heavy Metal in Plant- - - - - - - - 73

5.4 The bioconcentration factor (BCF) - - - - - - 75

CHAPTER SIX

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION - - - - - - - 76

REFERENCES- - - - - - - - - - 79

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APA

Consults, E. & C, E (2023). Mobility of Heavy Metals from the University of Nigeria Sewage-Sludge Disposal Site to the Surrounding Soils and Plants. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/mobility-of-heavy-metals-from-the-university-of-nigeria-sewage-sludge-disposal-site-to-the-surrounding-soils-and-plants

MLA 8th

Consults, Education, and EZEUDO C "Mobility of Heavy Metals from the University of Nigeria Sewage-Sludge Disposal Site to the Surrounding Soils and Plants" Afribary. Afribary, 17 Jan. 2023, https://afribary.com/works/mobility-of-heavy-metals-from-the-university-of-nigeria-sewage-sludge-disposal-site-to-the-surrounding-soils-and-plants. Accessed 31 Jan. 2023.

MLA7

Consults, Education, and EZEUDO C . "Mobility of Heavy Metals from the University of Nigeria Sewage-Sludge Disposal Site to the Surrounding Soils and Plants". Afribary, Afribary, 17 Jan. 2023. Web. 31 Jan. 2023. < https://afribary.com/works/mobility-of-heavy-metals-from-the-university-of-nigeria-sewage-sludge-disposal-site-to-the-surrounding-soils-and-plants >.

Chicago

Consults, Education and C, EZEUDO . "Mobility of Heavy Metals from the University of Nigeria Sewage-Sludge Disposal Site to the Surrounding Soils and Plants" Afribary (2023). Accessed January 31, 2023. https://afribary.com/works/mobility-of-heavy-metals-from-the-university-of-nigeria-sewage-sludge-disposal-site-to-the-surrounding-soils-and-plants