Modern Abattoir for Enugu State. A Study on Effective Product Processing and Waste Management

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ABSTRACT 

The abattoir as a meat processing industry world-wide is saddled with the responsibility of maintaining good standards of hygiene in terms of its operation and waste management. Wastes are generated in diverse forms in abattoirs, these include, solid or semi-solid wastes, liquid wastes and gases. If these effluents or contaminants are not adequately and efficiently managed, the negative impact on the residential environs and human health cannot be overemphasized. Hygiene must be key in all abattoir operations. This study is engaged in identifying the different wastes generated from abattoir operations and at the same time proffering solutions on how these wastes can be effectively managed so that meat contamination and environmental pollution is highly minimized. This study is also aimed at identifying 15 the various mechanisms and procedures to be observed to ensure the smooth running of abattoir operations. The findings from this study indicate that a collection of these wastes are useful raw materials for our industries. Some of these wastes are transformed into useful products needed other operations, wastes like the cow dung is mixed with other ingredient and used as food for pig farming, the horns are useful raw material for the plastic industries, the skull and bones used in making ceramics, the hides used for leather works and the offal converted to fertilizers. These wastes when effectively managed reduce the extent of pollution in our environment. Finally, it can be concluded that it is important to incorporate in the design of abattoir adequate means of collecting these wastes from their different sources of production as well as packaging them for either collection by interested individuals/factories or appropriate disposal of unusable wastes. Keywords: Abattoir; waste management; environment; public health.



TABLE OF CONTENTS:

Title Page…………………………………………………………………………………..….. i

Approval Page…………………………………………………………………………….….. ii

Dedication…………………………………………………………………………………….. iii

Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………………………. iv

Table of Contents……………………………………………………………………………... v

List of Charts…………………………………………………………………………………. xii

List of Figures………………………………………………………………………...…….... xiii

List of Plates………………………………………………………………………………...... xv

List of Tables………………………………………………………………………………….. xvii

Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………….. xviii

CHAPTER 1:

1.0 INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………….……………. 1

1.1 Background of study………………………………………………..……..….….. 2

1.2 Statement of problems………………………………….…………………….….. 4

1.3 Aim …..………………………………………………………………………….. 6

1.4 Objective of study .………………………………………………….…….……... 6

1.5 Research Questions ……………………………………………………………… 6

1.6 Motivation…………………………………………………………...…….……..7

1.7 Significance of study…………………………………………………………….. 7

1.8 Limitation of study.…………………………………………….…………..……. 8

1.9 Research methodology………………………………………….……………….. 8

1.10 Scope of study…………………………………...…........................................... 9

CHAPTER 2:

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction…………………………………...…............................................................ 13

2.1 Definitions of Terms…………………………………...…............................................... 14

2.2. Historical Background of Abattoir …………………………………...…........................ 15

2.2.1 Reform Movement…………………………………...….................................... 16

2.2.2 Regulation and Expansion…………………………………...…...............................................19

2.3 Nature of the Demand and Supply of Meat in Nigeria……………………………………20

2.3.1 Problems of Beef Supply In Nigeria…………………………………...…......... 21

2.3.2 Marketing of Beef in Nigeria…………………………………...….................... 23

2.3.3 Processing Of Beef in Nigeria…………………………………...….................. 24

2.3.4 Further Processing …………………………………...…...................................25

2.4 Meat and Its Nutritional Composition…………………………………...….................... 25

2.4.1 Meat Definition…………………………………...…........................................ 25

2.4.2 Nutrient Composition of Red Meat…………………………………...….......... 26

2.4.3 Types of Animal Tissue Suitable For Meat Processing……………………………… 26

2.5 Meat Contamination…………………………………...…............................................... 30

2.5.1 Effect of Bacterial Growth on the Shelf-Life of Meat and Meat Product………31

2.5.2 Effect of Contamination on Sensoric Properties of Meat and Meat Products…. 33

2.5.3 Good Hygienic Practices in Meat Processing…………………………………..34

2.6 Activities of the Meat Sector…………………………………...…................................... 34

2.6.1 Slaughter Activities…………………………………...…................................... 35

2.6.1.1 Slaughter Process in Red Meat Abattoir……………………………… 35

2.6.2 By-Products and Their General Use…………………………………...…......... 38

2.6.2.1 Inedible Byproducts…………………………………...…................... 39

2.6.2.2 Edible Byproducts…………………………………...….....................41

2.7 Some Environmental Problems Encountered With Abattoir Operations………………… 43

2.8 Waste Management Strategies for Abattoir……………………………………………… 48

2.8.1 The Handling of Abattoir Waste…………………………………...…................ 49

2.8.1.1 Waste Processing/Rendering Technology……………………………. 50

2.8.1.2 Landfilling……………………………………………………………. 52

2.8.1.3 Incineration…………………………………...…................................ 53

2.8.1.4 Anaerobic Digestion/ Composting…………………………………… 54

2.8.2 The Collection and Rendering of Blood…………………………………...…... 55

2.8.2.1 Small-Scale Processing…………………………………...…..............56

2.8.2.2 Wet Rendering…………………………………...…........................... 57

2.8.2.3 Commercial Drying…………………………………...…................... 57

2.9 Effluent Treatment…………………………………...….................................................. 59

CHAPTER 3:

3.0 DESIGN GUIDELINESFOR ABATTOIR DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

3.1 Essential Facilities inan Abattoir…………………………...…......................................... 66

3.2 General Requirements for Construction…………………………...…................................ 68

3.2.1 Water Supply…………………………...….......................................................... 68

3.2.2 Hand Lavatories, Hand Dips, Drinking Fountains, Sanitizers and Hose Connections…………………………...…........................................................ 70

3.2.3 Equipment…………………………...…............................................................. 71

3.2.4 Drains…………………………...….................................................................... 71

3.2.5 Sewage Disposal…………………………...…................................................... 73

3.2.6 Disposal of Paunch and Intestinal Contents…………………………................. 75

3.2.7 Catch Basins…………………………...….......................................................... 75

3.2.8 Lighting…………………………...…................................................................. 75

3.2.9 Ventilation……………………...…....................................................................... 76

3.2.10 Walls……………………...…............................................................................ 77

3.2.11 Ceiling……………………...….......................................................................... 78

3.2.12 Floors……………………...…........................................................................... 79

3.2.13 Doorways and Doors……………………...….................................................... 80

3.2.14 Stairs……………………...…............................................................................. 81

3.2.15 Paint……………………...…............................................................................. 81

3.2.16 Screens and Insect Control……………………...…........................................... 81

3.2.17 Rodent Proofing and Control……………………...…........................................ 82

3.2.18 Roadways……………………...…...................................................................... 82

3.2.19 Separation……………………...…...................................................................... 82

3.2.20 Interior Woodwork……………………...…....................................................... 83

3.2.21 Outside Premises……………………...…............................................................ 83

3.3 Specific Requirements……………………...…................................................................... 83

3.3.1 Premise……………………...…............................................................................ 83

3.3.2 Reception……………………...…......................................................................... 85

3.3.3 Livestock Pens (Lairages)……………………...…............................................... 85

3.3.3 Isolation Pen……………………...…..................................................................... 88

3.3.4 Pre-Slaughter Holding Pens……………………...…............................................. 88

3.3.5 Stunning, Hoisting And Bleeding Areas……………………...…......................... 88

3.3.6 Slaughter and Dressing Hall……………………...…........................................... 90

3.3.7 Meat Inspection Points……………………...…................................................... 94

3.3.8 Detained Rooms……………………...…............................................................. 96

3.3.9 Condemned and Inedible Rooms……………………...…................................... 96

3.3.10 Hide, Skin and Feet Rooms……………………...….......................................... 97

3.3.11 Carcass Coolers……………………...…............................................................. 97

3.3.12 Offal Coolers……………………...…................................................................. 98

3.3.13 Freezers……………………...…......................................................................... 99

3.3.14 Head Preparation Rooms……………………...…............................................... 99

3.3.15 Offal Preparation Rooms……………………...…................................................ 99

3.3.16 Cutting and De-Boning Rooms……………………...…....................................... 100

3.3.17 Vacuum Packaging Area:……………………...…................................................ 100

3.3.18 Weighing, Labeling And Pack Off Rooms……………………...….................... 101

3.3.19 Dispatch……………………...….......................................................................... 101

3.4. Other Facilities……………………...…............................................................................... 102

CHAPTER 4:

CASE STUDIES

4.1. Abattoir at Akwata in Ogbete Main Market, Enugu State…………………...…................. 109

4.1.1 Observations…………………...…......................................................................... 112

4.1.2 Merits …………………...….................................................................................. 117

4.1.3 Demerits…………………...…............................................................................... 118

4.2. Abattoir at New Commodity Market Ikpa, Nsukka L.G.A. …………………...…............. 119

4.2.1 Observations…………………...…........................................................................ 123

4.2.2 Merits…………………...…................................................................................... 127

4.2.3 Demerits…………………...…............................................................................... 127

4.3. Mirha Exports Pvt. Ltd. In Punjab, Delhi, India…………………...…................................ 129

4.3.1 Background Study…………………...…............................................................... 130

4.3.2 Merits…………………...….................................................................................. 138

4.4. Livingstone Beef Processing Facility, Australia…………………...…............................... 139

4.4.1. Background Study…………………...….............................................................. 139

4.4.2 Merits…………………...….................................................................................. 145

CHAPTER 5:

SITE ANALYSIS

5.0 Introduction……………...…........................................................................................146

5.1. A Brief History of Enugu State………………………………………………………...152

5.1.1 Politics……………………………………………………………………………153

5.1.2 Economy………………………………………………………………………….154

5.1.3 Energy……………………………………………………………………………. 155

5.1.4 Education………………………………………………………………………… 155

5.1.5 Medicine…………………………………………………………………………. 156

5.1.6 Demographics……………………………………………………………………156

5.2 Climatic Analysis ………………………………………………………………………….. 157

5.2.1 Winds ………………………………………………………………………….... 157

5.2.2 Sky Conditions …………………………………………………………………. 159

5.2.3 Temperature ……………………………………………………………………. 159

5.2.4 Rainfall …………………………………………………………………………160

5.2.5 Humidity ………………………………………………………………………..161

5.2.6 Sunrise and Sunset Data ………………………………………………………..163

5.3 Geographical Analysis …………………………………………………………………....164

5.3.1 Vegetation………………………………………………………………………. 164

5.3.2 Soil Type ……………………………………………………………………….. 165

5.3.3 Nature of Topography ofthe Site……………………………………………….. 167

5.4. Physical/ Land Use Analysis………………………………………………………………168

5.4.1 Site Parameters………………………………………………………………….. 168

5.4.2 Existing Buildings aroundthe Site……………………………………………… 169

5.4.3 Access Route……………………………………………………………………. 169

5.5 Criteria for Choice of Site…………………………………………………………………

5.5.1 Environment…………………………………………………………………….. 170

5.5.2 Geological Structure and Features………………………………………………. 170

5.5.3 Site Dimensions…………………………………………………………………. 170

5.5.4 Services………………………………………………………………………….. 170

5.5.5 Nearness to Neighbourhood Housing.…………………………………………..171

5.5.6 Easy Access to Site……………………………………………………………… 171

5.6 Effective Design Solutions tothe Climatic Zone………………………………………… 171

CHAPTER 6:

6.0 Design Synthesis ………………………………………………………………………… 173

6.1 Design Philosophy…………………………………………………………………......... 174

6.1.1 Method ………………………………………………………………………… 174

6.1.2 Use ……………………………………………………………………………… 175

6.1.3 Need ……………………………………………………………………………… 175

6.1.4 Telesis …………………………………………………………………………… 175

6.1.5 Association ……………………………………………………………………… 175

6.1.6 Aesthetics ……………………………………………………………………… 175

6.2 The Design Concept……………………………………………………………………… 177

6.2.1 Planning Principles…………………………………………………………… 180

REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………………….. 173

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APA

Consults, E. & EDMUND, E (2022). Modern Abattoir for Enugu State. A Study on Effective Product Processing and Waste Management. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/modern-abattoir-for-enugu-state-a-study-on-effective-product-processing-and-waste-management

MLA 8th

Consults, Education, and EZUGWU EDMUND "Modern Abattoir for Enugu State. A Study on Effective Product Processing and Waste Management" Afribary. Afribary, 30 Nov. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/modern-abattoir-for-enugu-state-a-study-on-effective-product-processing-and-waste-management. Accessed 31 Jan. 2023.

MLA7

Consults, Education, and EZUGWU EDMUND . "Modern Abattoir for Enugu State. A Study on Effective Product Processing and Waste Management". Afribary, Afribary, 30 Nov. 2022. Web. 31 Jan. 2023. < https://afribary.com/works/modern-abattoir-for-enugu-state-a-study-on-effective-product-processing-and-waste-management >.

Chicago

Consults, Education and EDMUND, EZUGWU . "Modern Abattoir for Enugu State. A Study on Effective Product Processing and Waste Management" Afribary (2022). Accessed January 31, 2023. https://afribary.com/works/modern-abattoir-for-enugu-state-a-study-on-effective-product-processing-and-waste-management