Modification and Testing of Biomass Dryer

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ABSTRACT

Drying is out of the major problem in post harvest operation. The traditional method of  Drying (Sun drying) is weather dependent and unhygienic which affect food storage most especially in developing countries like India where more than 3300 to 3700 hours of bright sunshine per year available in North- West and West coastal region. The dryer consist of the following operating component parts: a cabinet, blower, trays, temperature controller, copper wire and light emitting Diode (LED) screen and switch. The factors considered in the study were turmeric of 2000g weight, temperature (500C, 600C and 800C) and each were replicated 3 times. The testing was carried out in term of drying rate, amount of moisture loss and applied temperature. Temperature of 600C and 700C favours the drying of the three weight that temperature of 400C. the time taken for each figure sample at different weight and temperature differs. Hence, the higher the temperature the lesser the time taken for the turmeric to dry, the higher the weight the higher the time taken for turmeric to dry, the statistical analysis (ANOVA) shows that there is high significance difference at 5% in the mean value of the drying rate as affected by temperature 400C and there high significance difference at 1% and 5% in the mean value of the drying rate. The efficiency of the battery operated biomass dryer on the modification to the biomass dryer was evaluated to be  N 223,250.00.


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover Page                                                                                                                          i

Title Page                                                                                                                           ii

Certification  iii

Dedication  iv

Acknowledgements  v

Abstract  vi

Table of Contents  vii

List of Tables  xi

List of Figures  xii

List of Plates  xiii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION  

1.1               Background to the Study  1

1.2               Problem  Statement 2

1.3               Aim and Objectives  2

1.4               Justification  3

1.5               Scope of the Project 3

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW   

2.1               Drying as an Element of Post Harvest 4

2.1.1           Types of Losses  5

2.1.1.1       Moisture Content 6

2.1.1.2       Damage  6

2.1.1.3       Direct and Indirect Losses  6

2.1.1.4       Weight Loss  6

2.1.1.5       Quality Loss  6

2.1.1.6       Food Loss  7

2.1.1.7       Seed Viability Loss  7

2.1.1.8       Commercial Loss  7

2.2               Methods of Drying  8

2.2.1           Traditional method of drying  8

2.2.2           Modern Methods of Drying  8

2.3               Mechanisms of Drying  9

2.4               Basic Theory of Drying  10

2.4.1           Thin Layer Drying  11

2.4.2           Deep Bed Drying  14

2.5               Factors affecting rate of drying  15

2.5.1           Crop Parameters  15

2.5.2           Air Parameters  16

2.5.3           Dryer Parameters  17

2.6               Review of Dryers  17

2.7               Drying Process  18

2.8               Agronomy of Turmeric  19

2.8.1           Benefit of Turmeric  19

2.9             Sources of Energy for Drying  20

2.9.1          Briquette as a Source of Energy  20

2.9.2          Solar as a Source of Energy  21

2.9.3           The Fossil Fuels  21

2.9.4           Electricity  21

2.9.5           Nuclear Power 21

2.9.6           Hydro Power 22

2.9.7           Geothermal Energy  22

2.9.8           Wind Power 22

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHOD  

3.1               Modified Areas on the Biomass Dryer 23

3.2               Materials  23

3.2.1           Charcoal 23

3.2.2           Digital Weighing Scale  24

3.2.3           Temperature Monitor and Controller 24

3.2.4           Biomass Dryer 25

3.2.5           Digital Venier Caliper 25

3.2               Description of the Machine  26

3.3               Component Parts of the Biomass Dryer 26

3.3.1           Chimney  27

3.3.2           Drying Tray  27

3.3.3           Drying Chamber 27

3.3.4           Solar Panel 27

3.3.5           Battery  28

3.3.6           Ash Port 28

3.3.7           Temperature Controller 28

3.3.8           Centrifugal Fan (Blower) 28

3.3.9           LED Screen  28

3.3.10        Charge Controller 28

3.3.11        Copper Pipe  29

3.4               Design Consideration for the Biomass Dryer 29

3.4.1           Air Temperature  29

3.4.2           Air Relative Humidity  29

3.4.3           Air Flow Rate  30

3.5               Material Selection  30

3.6               Operation of the Biomass Dryer 31

3.7               Design Analysis/Design Calculation  31

3.7.1           Design for the Volume/Capacity of Drying Tray  31

3.7.2           Design of Area of the Temperature Controller 31

3.7.3           Design of Area of Copper Pipe  32

3.7.4           Design of Area for the Burning Chamber 32

3.7.5           The Amount of Moisture to be Removed from Agricultural Produce  32

3.7.6           Design for Solar Panel Capacity  33

3.7.7           Drying Rate  33

3.7.8           Design Calculation and Analysis  33

3.8               Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation (BEME) 35

3.10.1       Sourcing of Raw Material 37

3.10.2        Sample Preparation  37

3.10.3        Experimental Design and Layout 37

3.10.4        Experimental Procedure  38

3.10.5       Output Parameter 38

3.10.5.1   Measurement for Drying Rate  38

3.10.5.2    Determination of Water Loss  38

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 

4.1               Results  40

4.2               Discussion  44

4.2.1           Effect of Drying Rate on Turmeric at 500C   44

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  48

5.1               Conclusions  48

5.2               Recommendations  48

Reference    50

Appendix A   54

Appendix B   56

Appendix C   58

AppendiX D   60


 

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APA

Frontiers, E. & BOLAKALE, I (2022). Modification and Testing of Biomass Dryer. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/modification-and-testing-of-biomass-dryer

MLA 8th

Frontiers, Edu, and IDRIS BOLAKALE "Modification and Testing of Biomass Dryer" Afribary. Afribary, 08 Jan. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/modification-and-testing-of-biomass-dryer. Accessed 27 Jan. 2022.

MLA7

Frontiers, Edu, and IDRIS BOLAKALE . "Modification and Testing of Biomass Dryer". Afribary, Afribary, 08 Jan. 2022. Web. 27 Jan. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/modification-and-testing-of-biomass-dryer >.

Chicago

Frontiers, Edu and BOLAKALE, IDRIS . "Modification and Testing of Biomass Dryer" Afribary (2022). Accessed January 27, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/modification-and-testing-of-biomass-dryer