CHAPTER ONE 1.0
1.1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Landscape basically means the appearance of the land. It also refers to an area of land that has a specific quality or appearance. The landscape of a region is the physical features of that region as a whole. Landscape is very key to sustainable environmental development which is now a buzzword in environmental literature (Ibimilua 2014). Essaghah (1997) argued that landscape planning is consists of activities that are aimed at the enunciation of existing open space in order to improve the quality of the built environment. It is everywhere and may comprise rural landscape, urban landscape (or townscape), urban fringe landscape, coastal landscape, seascape, among others (Fadamiro et al, 2014). Landscape design, like painting, sculpture, and architecture, is a form of art. “Design” is defined as “the planned arrangement of elements to form a visual pattern” in David Laurer’s Design Basics. The opposite of design is to place elements by chance or at random (Melvin 2006). Landscape Installation is the act of setting up the landscape for use. The installation procedure involves sod removal, edging, weed barriers, installing the plants, mulching, and retaining walls, after which the landscape is constantly maintained. There exists various methods of landscape design and installation. Lynch and Hack identify the following twelve methods used in landscape architecture: Learning probes, subconscious suggestion, brainstorming, evaluation criteria, well-spaced alternatives, focus on the means, incremental improvement, incremental adaption, behavior settings, structure of the problem, optimizing the essential function and disaggregation. Lynch and Hack do not talk about process or design theory. Rather, they concentrate on the identification and definitions of the methods (Lynch&Hack undated).
The effective management of landscape is particularly buttressed by landscape assessment. If robustly and rigorously applied, landscape assessment should inform both the approach and decision-making process relating to how landscapes are managed and thereby reduce subsequent costs in policy-making process or proposed project (Fadamiro et al, 2014). Man and his environment are inseparable and must be considered in their relationship with each other. Steps have been taken over the years to create a workable interaction between the two phenomena. In the bid to rise up to the situation, the environmental scientists and other related professionals have shown a great concern in various researches which have led to world summits and conferences. These are brainstorms that are meant to fashion out reliable modalities for the control of the environment both at the micro and macro levels (Fadamiro et al, 2014). Landscape assessment is concerned with assessment of the landscape quality. It is a sub-category of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Landscape quality is assessed either as a part of a strategic planning process or in connection with a specific development which will have an impact on the landscape. The term landscape assessment can be used to either mean Visual assessment or Character assessment. Visual assessment is concerned with the nature and extent of visual impacts and qualities relating to locations and proposals. Character assessment includes assessments of each aspect of the landscape: geology, hydrology, soils, ecology, settlement patterns, cultural history, scenic characteristics, land use etc. It typically includes distinct descriptive and evaluative components (Fadamiro et al, 2014).
1.1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS Chaotic Landscape Management as a result of Unplanned Population Explosion The unplanned, uncontrolled, chaotic city growth, population explosion, pollution, erosion, misuse of natural and man-made resources are posing far reaching challenges to the environmental 3 designers in Akure. So also are the urban drift, neglect of rural areas, overcrowding, environmental degeneration and degradation in the urban areas. Hence, the search for quality urban and rural environments which are crucial developmental issues calling for maximum attention and concerted efforts of all environmental designers in the developing countries. (Fadamiro et al, 2014) One of the critical issues of concern to most national governments world over is the need to stem the rate of urbanization induced by the incidence of globalization, industrialization and an unprecedented population growth rate in the cities. (Jiboye, 2005). This concern has led to several global Summits organized at various level of government, international Agencies including the United Nations. Specifically among such are, the millennium Development Goals Summits, the 2002 world summit in Johannesburg and the 2005 La-Havana UN sustainable cities documentation of experience programme among several others. In each of these summits, member nations reiterate the need for good and effective governance as a means of achieving sustainable development in the cities (Oladunjoye, 2005).
Emmanuel, A (2019). An Appraisal on the Landscape elements of Ondo state - Case studies of ALAGBAKA OJA-OBA AND FUTA. Afribary.com: Retrieved January 29, 2020, from https://afribary.com/works/olaniyan-emmanuel-final-year-thesis
Ayobami, Emmanuel. "An Appraisal on the Landscape elements of Ondo state - Case studies of ALAGBAKA OJA-OBA AND FUTA" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 13 Jul. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/olaniyan-emmanuel-final-year-thesis . Accessed 29 Jan. 2020.
Ayobami, Emmanuel. "An Appraisal on the Landscape elements of Ondo state - Case studies of ALAGBAKA OJA-OBA AND FUTA". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 13 Jul. 2019. Web. 29 Jan. 2020. < https://afribary.com/works/olaniyan-emmanuel-final-year-thesis >.
Ayobami, Emmanuel. "An Appraisal on the Landscape elements of Ondo state - Case studies of ALAGBAKA OJA-OBA AND FUTA" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed January 29, 2020. https://afribary.com/works/olaniyan-emmanuel-final-year-thesis