**ABSTRACT**

The Project work presents an Optimum design of welded plate girder. A simply supported plate girder with span of 15meters was chosen for the case study. The girder was subjected to a self-weight of 50KN/m and concentrated loads of 1000KN at 5m and 10m from the left support. The plate girder was analysed to get the design moments and shear forces. An initial manual design was carried out for the plate girder in accordance with BS 5950-2000. From the design, initial section parameters comprising flange breadth, flange thickness, web depth and web thickness were assigned to the plate girder. The initial section parameters were then subjected to an optimisation process using Generalised Reduced Gradient (GRG) in Excel solver Add-in. From the optimisation process there was 19.34% reduction in the area of the plate girder which translates to 19.34% reduction in weight. This shows that optimisation process can be an effective tool in the search for solution into real world problems.

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**TABLE OF CONTENTS**

Title Page

Certification

Approval

Dedication

Acknowledgment

Abstract

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Notations

**CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION**

1.1. Background of study

1.2. Statement of Problem

1.3. Aim and Objectives of Study

1.4. Scope of Study

1.5. Significance of Study

**CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW**

2.1. Definition of plate girder

2.2. Types of plate girder

2.3. Different shapes of flanges and webs

2.3.1, Load bearing stiffeners

2.3.2. Longitudinal stiffeners

2.3.3. Transverse Stiffeners

2.4 Introduction of weld and stiffness to girder

2.5 Design methods of girders

2.6 Typical span-to-depth ratio for different girders

2.6.1. Span configuration

2.6.2. Girder Spacing

2.6.3. Spacing

2.6.4. Section Proportion

**CHAPTER THREE: DESIGN METHODOLOGY**

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Design Problem

3.3. Design Considerations

3.4. Design Procedure

3.4.1. Determination of section parameters

3.4.2. Dimension/sizing of plate girder element

3.4.3. Section classification/proportional limitation

3.4.4. Moment Resistance

3.4.5. Choice of Optimum depth

3.5. Optimisation programme

3.5.1. Design Parameters

3.5.2. Assumptions

3.5.3. Optimisation Process

3.5.4. Optimizer (Excel solver) settings

3.6. The Investigations

3.6.1. Selection of Numerical problem

3.6.2. The pilot design and search for pattern

3.6.3. Detailed Investigations

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**CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION**

4.1. Design Brief

4.2. Loading

4.3. Design shear forces and moments

4.4. Initial sizing of plate girder

4.5. Section Classification

4.6. Dimension of web and flanges

4.7. Moment Resistance

4.8. Shear buckling resistance of web

4.9. Shear buckling resistance of end panel AB

4.10. Optimisation Result Analysis

4.11. Discussion of Results

**CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS**

5.1. Conclusion

5.2. Recommendations

**REFERENCES**

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**LIST OF FIGURES**

Fig. 1.1; Plate girder composed of three plates

Figure 2.2; plate girder configurations

Figure 2.3; Plate girder with splice and variable cross-section

Figure 2.4; Plate girder with haunches, tapers and cranks

Figure 2.5; Plate girder with hole for service

Figure 2.6; Plate girder proportions

Figure 2.7; Typical diaphragm and cross-sections of plate girders

Figure 2.8: Components of Typical I-Girder Bridge

Figure 2.9; Typical plate girder

Figure 2.10; End panel strengthened by longitudinal stiffener

Figure 3.1 Optimisation process

Figure 3.2 Symmetrical girder section

Figure 4.1; Plate girder span and loading

Figure 4.2; Load diagram of the plate girder

Figure 4.3; Shear force diagram of the plate girder

Figure 4.4; Moment diagram of the plate girder

Figure 4.5; Final plate girder section details

Figure 4.6; Variation of flange thickness with web depth

Figure 4.7; Variation of plate girder area with web depth

Figure 4.8; Variation of % increase in weight with web depth

Figure 4.9; Variation of web thickness with web depth

Figure 4.10; Variation of flange breadth with web depth

Figure 4.11; Variation of flange thickness with web thickness

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**LIST OF TABLES**

Table 3.1; Typical span/effective depth ratios

Table 4.1; Initial and optimised section results

Table 4.2; Variation of flange thickness with web depth

Table 4.3; Variation of area of plate girder with web depth

Table 4.4; Variation %reduction in weight with web depth

Table 4.5; Variation of web thickness with web depth

Table 4.6; Variation of flange breadth with web depth

Table 4.7; Variation of flange thickness with web thickness

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**LIST OF NOTATIONS**

Af = area of flange plate

a = stiffener spacing

Pyw = characteristic strength of web

Pyf = characteristic strength of flange

M = bending Moment

h = overall depth

tf = flange thickness

fy = yield strength of steel

ᵞmo = partial safety factor (resistance of class 1, 2, 3 cross-sections)

Mf = bending moment of flange

Rd = diagonal resistance

b = breadth

bf = section flange width

tf = section flange thickness

dw = depth of web

D = depth of section

tw = web thickness

Py = steel design strength

Ag = gross sectional area

Fv = design shear force

Fc = design axial compression

Mb = buckling resistance moment

MA = moment at section A

Mmax = maximum moment

MD = moment at section D

Pb = buckling strength

PV = shear strength

γfd =dead load factor

γfi = live load feactor

w = self-weight (UDL)

W = concentrated load

Mx = maximum major axis moment in the segment length Lx governing Pcx

MLT = maximum major axis moment in the segment length L governing Mb

Pcy = compression resistance considering buckling about minor axis only

λy = slenderness ratio about the minor axis.

VA = reaction force at section A

VB = reaction force at section B

VC = reaction force at section C

VD = reaction force at section D

VE = reaction force at section E

Vcr = critical shear buckling resistance

Fv = maximum shear force;

Vw = simple shear buckling resistance.

Mu = maximum applied moment

L = length of girder

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APA

Ethelbert, M.
(2019). OPTIMUM DESIGN OF WELDED PLATE GIRDER. *Afribary*. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/optimum-design-of-welded-plate-girder

MLA 8th

Ethelbert, Mezie
"OPTIMUM DESIGN OF WELDED PLATE GIRDER" *Afribary*. Afribary, 10 May. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/optimum-design-of-welded-plate-girder. Accessed 05 Aug. 2024.

MLA7

Ethelbert, Mezie
. "OPTIMUM DESIGN OF WELDED PLATE GIRDER". *Afribary*, Afribary, 10 May. 2019. Web. 05 Aug. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/optimum-design-of-welded-plate-girder >.

Chicago

Ethelbert, Mezie . "OPTIMUM DESIGN OF WELDED PLATE GIRDER" Afribary (2019). Accessed August 05, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/optimum-design-of-welded-plate-girder