PATRIARCHY AND MATRIARCHY AS NEGATIVE THEMES IN SELECTED WORKS OF FLORA NWAPA’S EFURU AND ATA AMA AIDOO’S ANOWA

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ABSTRACT 
Patriarchy and matriarchy as negative themes in Efuru and Anowa as practical examples of gender issues in our society as become factors in the social, economic, political, and religious development of the society. This research work examines the negativity of patriarchy and matriarchy in Nwapa’s Efuru and Ata Ama Aidoo’s Anowa in the Nigerian and Ghanaian setting respectively. This research employs liberal feminism theory as it reveals how culture, tradition, colonialization and religion of the people through the characters bring out it negative effect on the society. This work reveals that the African setting is a patriarchal one, polygamous in nature, colonialized oppression through slavery, African women are selfless, hard working and successful, also that separation between the genders brings freedom, but does not bring happiness. This work has therefore shown that having either a patriarchal or matriarchal setting result to an unhappy end or tragic and which leads us to the need for equality between the two genders. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE      PAGES 
Title Page                                                                                                                   i
Certification                                                                                                              ii
Dedication                                                                                                             iii
Acknowledgement                                                                                                     iv
Abstract  v
Table of contents  vi 

CHAPTER ONE
1.0General Introduction   1
1.1Authorial Background of Flora Nwapa   3
1.2Background Study of Ata Ama Aidoo   3
1.3Purpose   4
1.4Justification   4
1.5Scope and Delimitation   5
1.6Methodology   5

CHAPTER TWO: 
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0Introduction         6
2.1Definition of Terms: Patriarchy and Matriarchy   7
2.2.Definition of Theory: Feminism    9
2.3 Scholars views on the selected works and the writers; related works to the research topic  13

CHAPTER THREE: 
PATRIARCHY VERSUS MATRIARCHY AS NEGATIVE THEMES IN FLORA NWAPA’S EFURU
3.0Introduction   16
3.1Patriarchy versus Matriarchy in Efuru  16
3.2.Inversion of Characters   22
3.2.1    Male Characters
3.2.2    Female Characters
3.3Summary  26

CHAPTER FOUR: 
PATRIARCHY VERSUS MATRIARCHY AS NEGATIVE THEMES IN ATA AMA ALDOO’S ANOWA
4.0Introduction              27
4.1Patriarchy versus Matriarchy in Anowa  27
4.2Characters Inversion  34
4.2.1     Male Characters
4.2.2      Female Characters
4.3        Summary             35

CHAPTER FIVE 
5.0Summary            36
5.1Findings36
5.2Conclusion37
Bibliography39

INTRODUCTION
Gender issues have become factors in the social, economic, political, religious development of the society. Patriarchy and matriarchy as negative themes in selected works of Flora Nwapa’s Efuru and Ata Ama Aidoo’s Anowa is to reflect on the negativity of having a man in control of the affairs of the home and the community in general. The two selected works to be used is Efuru and Anowa both tilted after heroines in the works. The works having two different backgrounds Efuru having a Nigerian background while Anowa is of a Ghanaian background but both having African settings, traditions and female authors. Flora Nwapa and Ata Ama Aidoo have thematic pre-occupation of patriarchy and matriarchy.
           Social inequality between men and women can be traced to unequal power  relations in particular societies, this is reflected in men and women ’s code of  conduct, public behaviors, attitude towards children,  economical status and roles within the family. This attitude and way of life between the two genders as reflected in Efuru and Anowa, the authors using characters to drive home this point of inequality.
          Allan Durant and Nigel Fabb (1900:43) are of the view that human species has a biologically fixed, binary sex division between male and female, but super imposed on this are culturally constructed oppositions of gender: masculine and feminine, men and women. They went further to say that this system of oppositions of gender is in virtually all cultures; it varies from culture to culture and period to period.
          Allan Durant and Nigel Fabb (1900:43) reviews gender as:-
  While men, masculine, male are taken as Privileged, defining terms, women, feminine, Female are treated as simply the other of those Terms. Specific attributes of women (e.g. bodies, Thoughts, believe etc.) are taken merely as negative to the positive poles of the oppositions….
       The two selected works have female protagonists written by female authors giving it a feminist approach. In Africa the female situation is similar to that which obtain in the Christian west, most African societies are patriarchal in nature having the men in charge of all affairs, and it is the male that dominate and legislates.
        The first work Efuru (1966) the title character by Flora Nwapa , Efuru is a strong, beautiful, young woman who unfortunately seem to have bad luck with men and unable to bear children. She independently finds strength in her business and her religious faith in the lake goddess, aid to the poor and sick. Like Efuru , Anowa (1970) is a work titled character written by Ama Ata Aidoo. Anowa’s character demonstrates cultural, racial and social tensions. Anowa like Efuru have extra ordinary birth circumstances, having anti social behaviors. The  works having honest explorations of the conflicts between the individualism of westernized culture and the social traditions of Africa.
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APA

Ugwu, A. (2018). PATRIARCHY AND MATRIARCHY AS NEGATIVE THEMES IN SELECTED WORKS OF FLORA NWAPA’S EFURU AND ATA AMA AIDOO’S ANOWA. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/patriarchy-and-matriarchy-as-negative-themes-in-selected-works-of-flora-nwapa-rsquo-s-efuru-and-ata-ama-aidoo-rsquo-s-anowa-9141

MLA 8th

Ugwu, Anderson "PATRIARCHY AND MATRIARCHY AS NEGATIVE THEMES IN SELECTED WORKS OF FLORA NWAPA’S EFURU AND ATA AMA AIDOO’S ANOWA" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/patriarchy-and-matriarchy-as-negative-themes-in-selected-works-of-flora-nwapa-rsquo-s-efuru-and-ata-ama-aidoo-rsquo-s-anowa-9141. Accessed 04 Dec. 2022.

MLA7

Ugwu, Anderson . "PATRIARCHY AND MATRIARCHY AS NEGATIVE THEMES IN SELECTED WORKS OF FLORA NWAPA’S EFURU AND ATA AMA AIDOO’S ANOWA". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 04 Dec. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/patriarchy-and-matriarchy-as-negative-themes-in-selected-works-of-flora-nwapa-rsquo-s-efuru-and-ata-ama-aidoo-rsquo-s-anowa-9141 >.

Chicago

Ugwu, Anderson . "PATRIARCHY AND MATRIARCHY AS NEGATIVE THEMES IN SELECTED WORKS OF FLORA NWAPA’S EFURU AND ATA AMA AIDOO’S ANOWA" Afribary (2018). Accessed December 04, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/patriarchy-and-matriarchy-as-negative-themes-in-selected-works-of-flora-nwapa-rsquo-s-efuru-and-ata-ama-aidoo-rsquo-s-anowa-9141