Analysis of Ocean Renewable Energy (ORE) Research and Application in West African Region – A case study of Liberia

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Abstract:
The unbalance application of the hydropower and others renewable energy generation in west Africa, constant rise in the demand of energy, which leads to damping in the electricity supply and the importance of reducing greenhouse emissions, has brought the adoption of  clean renewable energy sources for generation of electrical power. One of these sources that have the potential to supply the world’s energy needs is the ocean (Home of waters). The current utilization of ocean area as energy source in West African region is in the production of oil and gas from the continental shelf. However, this resource is depleting and the adaptation of ocean energy could be of major importance especially in favorable areas. The primary purpose of this thesis is to discuss the possibilities of analyzing Ocean Renewable Energy (ORE) in West African countries. The analysis is conducted from the perspective of cost, energy security and environmental protection. This analysis will be helpful in determining the feasibility, performance, issues and environmental effects related to the generation and transmission of OBRE in West Africa region. This study shows that adapting ocean energy in West Africa region can significantly produce the energy needed to match the rising energy demands. Although, the transition towards the Ocean Based Renewable Energy (OBRE) will incur high capital cost at the initial stage but it will eventually lead to a cost-effective generation, transmission, environmental improvement and stable energy supply to match demand when compared with the conventional mode of generation in West Africa. West African nations support for renewable energy projects is important in transitioning towards a more sustainable energy system. However, the literature investigating energy acceptability has predominantly focused on understanding others energy projects. As a result, it has relatively little to say about the construction of support for such projects, and about the relative acceptability of other contributions to sustainability. Also, by focusing on oppositional responses to energy projects, the willingness and ability of local communities to contribute constructively to the design of locally-supported energy developments has also been overlooked by many previous studies.

 

In response to these limitations, this research adopted a focus on early stage ‘upwelling’ deliberation of multiple ocean energy alternatives, using Liberia as a case study. Informed by social representations theory, three studies investigated how potential Future Ocean current, tidal, heat, saline and wave energy projects were represented by West African nations to threaten, enhance or fit place-related values and meanings associated with West Africa and its coast and sea. Working collaboratively with the West African nations government’s Renewable Energy Teams, a mixed methods approach with a focus on participatory, visual methods was adopted, including auto-photography (Study 1), deliberative focus groups (Study 2) and a questionnaire survey (Study 3).

 

The research found Liberia and its coast and sea to be meaningful to local residents in many ways and at different scales, including as a unique country in need of more independence, with a coast that is valued for its quietness, wildlife, leisure opportunities, current, saline, heat, waves, tides, natural beauty and as a space for exploration. 





Table of contents

Abstract .... 2

List of tables... 4

List of figures .. 4-6

Acknowledgements. 6

Section 1

1.0 Introduction.. 7-8

 1.1 Background and significances of the Research. 8-10

Section 2

2.0 The state of West Africa Possible Ocean Renewable Energy... 10-12

2.1 Challenges………….…..12

2.2 Prospects and Perspective……

Section 3

3.0 The state of Liberia Possible Ocean Renewable Energy…... 13

3.1 Ocean current ……...……..13-14

3.2 Ocean thermal energy conversion..14-15

3.3 Methodology……….15

3.4 Coastal regions………..…15-16

3.5 Ocean current Analysis……16-17

3.5.1 Environmental Consideration ………18

3.5.2 Economical Consideration…………18

Section 4

4.0 Ocean thermal energy conversion……………………………………………….……….18

4.1 category of OTEC Design…………………………………………………………….……18-19

Section 5

 5.0 Prospect of ORE in Liberia….19-20

 5.1 State of the Technology……………………………………………………………..……..20

Section 6

6.0 Structural Analysis of the Possible ORE Generation Design .... 21-23

6.1 Hydrodynamic of Ocean current Turbines……………………………………………..24

 6.1.1 Hydrodynamic design of Ocean current Turbines………………………...…………24

6.1.2 Performance Prediction………………………………………………………..………..24-25

6.1.3 Section Design………………………………………………………………..…………..25-28

6.1.4 Performance Characteristics………………………………………………………..…..28-34

Section 7

7.0 Dynamics of Ocean current Turbines34-35

7.1 Ocean Turbine………………………………………………………………. 35-36

7.2 Design concept of Ocean current Turbines …………………………………………….36

7.3 The Concept of Shroud…………………………………………………………...…....36-38

7.4 Importance Parameters ... 39

7.5 Target analysis.... 39

7.6 Result 39

 7.6.1 Flow field in wake Region…………………………………………………….………..39-40


 7.6.2 Force impose on Turbines component…………………………………………40-43

7.6.3 Performance of the Turbines system………………………………………………….43-44

 7.6.4 Dual Rotor effect………………………………………………………………..……….44-45

 7.6.5 Equilibrium Analysis……………………………………………………………..……..46

 7.6.6 Rolling……………………………………………………………………………...……..46-47

 7.6.7 Pitching……………………………………………………………………………….…..47-48

 7.6.8 Yawing……………………………………………………………………………………48-50

Section 8

 8.0 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Analysis.50

 8.1 Ocean Thermal Resource ... 50

 8.2 OTEC Model plants.50-52

 8.3 Cost...52

 8.4 Energy Security and Environmental Protection.52

Section 9

9.0 Result and Discussion.53

9.1 Relationship of Ocean Temperature with depth.... 53

9.2 Relationship of Ocean Temperature with time of the year... 54

9.3 Proposed necessary graph and Discussions .... …………………54-55

9.4 Economic impact characteristic of OTEC power plant………………………………..55

9.5 Comparison between electricity generation using fossil fuel and ocean energy…..55-56

 Conclusion and recommendations... 57 

 Reference.... 58
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APA

Natt Jr., J. (2021). Analysis of Ocean Renewable Energy (ORE) Research and Application in West African Region – A case study of Liberia. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/phd-research-work-john-natt-1

MLA 8th

Natt Jr., John Nyemah "Analysis of Ocean Renewable Energy (ORE) Research and Application in West African Region – A case study of Liberia" Afribary. Afribary, 01 Apr. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/phd-research-work-john-natt-1. Accessed 24 May. 2022.

MLA7

Natt Jr., John Nyemah . "Analysis of Ocean Renewable Energy (ORE) Research and Application in West African Region – A case study of Liberia". Afribary, Afribary, 01 Apr. 2021. Web. 24 May. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/phd-research-work-john-natt-1 >.

Chicago

Natt Jr., John Nyemah . "Analysis of Ocean Renewable Energy (ORE) Research and Application in West African Region – A case study of Liberia" Afribary (2021). Accessed May 24, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/phd-research-work-john-natt-1