The Effects of Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash as Supplementary Cementitious Material in Production of Concrete


Sugarcane Bagasse is the fibrous residue leftover when sugarcane is squeezed for its juice. Bagasse ash is obtained by subjecting Bagasse to calcinations using furnace. This work is aimed tat using Bagasse Ash as a replacement in the production of concrete.

The bagasse was collected from dumped in a market in Kano and thereafter sun-drie to eliminate any trace of moisture. It was then taken to the blast furnace for calcinations(controlled burning) at a temperature of 1250OC for 25minutes.The ash was then weighed and sieved with a 90μm standard sieve and the quantity retained on the sieve (black carbon) was weighed and discarded. The ash collected was investigated and its chemical compositions were obtained. Normal Consistency and Setting time for Cement and bagasse ash were determined. The concrete was batched using mix ratio 1:2:4 and the cement was replaced in varying percentages of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% using Bagasse ash. Thereafter, the concrete was cured for 7, 14, 21, and 28days and its properties both in fresh and harden state were determined. The result for Normal consistency of cement was achieved at 35% of water cement ratio (140ml of water added) which is equal to 34mm penetration. While Normal consistency for Bagasse ash was achieved at 33% of water Sugarcane Bagasse Ash (SCBA ) ratio (132mls of water added) which is equal to 35mm penetration.  Hence, the cement and bagasse ash are satisfactory for normal consistency of 34 to 35% range of specification.The Slump of the concrete shows a slight reduction as the bagasse ash content increases. Also, the results of the compressive strength of  concrete at 20% replacement has highest compressive strength of 19.94N/mm2 at  28 days.



Titled page                                                                        

Certification                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgment                                                                                     iv

Abstract                                                                                                  v

Table of content                                                                                      vi

List of Table                                                                                            vii

List of Figure                                                                                           viii


1.1        Preamble                                                                                      1

1.2        Statement of problem                                                                    2

1.3        Aims and Objective                                                                        4

1.4        Justification                                                                                   4

1.5        Scope of the study                                                                         5


2.1     Concrete                                                                                       6

2.2     Properties of Concrete                                                                   7

2.2.1   Fresh properties                                                                            7

2.2.2 Hardened properties                                                                       7

2.3 Components of Concrete                                                                    7

2.3.1 Ordinary Portland Cement                                                               7

2.3.2 Aggregates

2.3.3   Water                                                                                           8

2.3.4   Admixtures                                                                                   8

2.4     Cement                                                                                         8

2.4.1 Types of cement                                                                             9 Portland cement                                                                           9 Portland pozzolana cement                                                           11

2.4.2 Physical Properties of cement                                                          12 Fineness                                                                                      13 Consistency of cement paste                                                        13 Setting time                                                                                 14

2.5     Pozzolans                                                                                      14

2.6     Cementitious Material                                                                    15

2.6.1   Fly ash                                                                                          16

2.6.2   Lime stone                                                                                    18

2.6.3   Condensed Silica Fume                                                                  18

2.7     Bagasse                                                                                        19

2.8     Previous Work Done                                                                      20


3.1     Material Sourcing                                                                          25

3.1.1   Bagasse Ash                                                                                  25

3.1.2   Cement                                                                                         25

3.1.3   Aggregate                                                                                    25 Fine Aggregates                                                                           26 Coarse aggregate                                                                         26

3.2  Research Procedure                                                                          26

3.2.1 Production of Bagasse Ash                                                               27

3.2.2 Characterization of Bagasse Ash                                                      28

3.2.3 Test on Bagasse ash and cement                                                     28 Finesses Test                                                                               28 Normal Consistency Test                                                              29 Setting time test (Initial and Final)                                                30

3.2.4  Test on aggregate                                                                         31 Sieve Analysis                                                                              31 Specific gravity and absorption capacity                                        32 Moisture content                                                                          33

3.2.5   Preparation of Concrete Specimens and Mixing Procedure                34


4.1     Characterization of Bagasse ash and cement                                   35

4.1.1   Physical properties of cement and Bagasse ash Result                     38

4.1.2   Chemical composition of sugarcane Bagasse Ash                             38

4.2     Result on Sieve Analysis                                                                40

4.2.1   Grain size distribution for Bagasse Ash and OPC Cement                 40

4.2.2  Results for Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregate                                    41

4.2.3 Result for Sieve Analysis of Coarse Aggregate                                  42

4.3     Workability Test (Slump Test)                                                        44

4.4     Average compressive strength Result                                             45




5.1     Conclusion                                                                                    47

5.2     Recommendation                                                                          47




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TIMOTHY, I (2022). The Effects of Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash as Supplementary Cementitious Material in Production of Concrete. Afribary. Retrieved from

MLA 8th

TIMOTHY, ISRAEL "The Effects of Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash as Supplementary Cementitious Material in Production of Concrete" Afribary. Afribary, 08 Jan. 2022, Accessed 25 Jul. 2024.


TIMOTHY, ISRAEL . "The Effects of Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash as Supplementary Cementitious Material in Production of Concrete". Afribary, Afribary, 08 Jan. 2022. Web. 25 Jul. 2024. < >.


TIMOTHY, ISRAEL . "The Effects of Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash as Supplementary Cementitious Material in Production of Concrete" Afribary (2022). Accessed July 25, 2024.