PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CAKE FROM WHEAT FLOUR USING AVOCADO PASTE AS FAT REPLACER

Harry Gift 30 PAGES (8545 WORDS) Project
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ABSTRACT

Avocado (Persea Americana) paste was utilized to substitute wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour as fat replacer in the production of cake. This study examined the effect of avocado paste substitutions at various proportions in production of cake. The proportions were 100% wheat flour, 95:5%, 90 :10%, 85 : 15%, 80 : 20%, 75 : 25% and 70 : 30% avocado paste. Colour analysis and texture of the cake was evaluated. Results shows L*, a* and b* value of the cakes ranged from 48.56-54.96, 4.83-6.68 and 14.40-22.60 respectively. The peak force of the cakes ranged from 112.00-267.00. It was concluded that the cake produced from 90% wheat flour substituted with 10% avocado paste was most preferable in terms of the light colour properties and average texture.

 

                                                                 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page                                                                       

Certification                                                                                                                  i

Dedication                                                                                                                    ii

Acknowledgment                                                                                                          iii

Abstract                                                                                                                       iv

Table of Contents                                                                                                         v

CHAPTER ONE                                                                                                        1

1.1.            Introduction                                                                                                      1

1.2.            Justification                                                                                                       3

1.3.            Aim and Objectives                                                                                          3

CHAPTER TWO                                                                                                       4

2.0      Literature Review                                                                                              4

2.1.1   Background of Cakes                                                                            4

2.1.2 Description of Cakes                                                                                           5

2.1.3Nutritional Composition of Cakes                                                             5

2.1.4Cakes Consumption in Nigeria                                                                  5

2.1.5Use of Composite Flour for Cakes Making                                                           6

2.1.6      Cakes Production with Whole Wheat Flour                                                     6

2.1.7      Cake Production Process                                                                               7

2.1.8      Steps in Cake Formulation                                                                              8

2.2.1Background of Avocado                                                                           9

2.2.2Description of Avocado                                                                            9

2.2.3   Fruit Care and Conservation                                                                  10

2.2.4  Composition of Avocado                                                                                    10

2.2.5Chemical Composition of Avocado                                                                       11

2.2.6Nutritional Value and Benefits of Avocado                                                            11

2.3.1Background of Wheat Flour                                                                      12

2.3.2Nutritional Composition of Wheat Flour                                                    13

2.3.3   Types of Wheat Flour and Its Uses                                                                    15

2.3.4   Wheat Stem, Fruit and Seed                                                                  16

2.3.5   Wheat Germ                                                                                          16

2.3.6   Wheat Bran                                                                                                       17

2.3.7   Medicinal Properties of Wheat                                                               17

CHAPTER THREE                                                                                                   19

3.0      Materials and Method                                                                            19

3.1      Materials                                                                                                           19

3.1.1Sources of materials                                                                                  19

3.1.2Cake Ingredient                                                                                        19

3.1.3      Avocado Paste                                                                                               19

3.1.4Cake Preparation                                                                                     19

 

3.2.0         ANALYSIS                                                                                                21

3.2.1Colour Determination of Cake                                                                  21

3.2.2   Texture Profile of Cakes                                                                                    21

CHAPTER FOUR      

4.0       Results and Discussion                                                                              22

4.1       Results                22

4.2       Discussion on colour analysis24

4.3             Discussion on texture analysis                                                                   25

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0              Conclusion and Recommendation                                                             27

5.1       Conclusion              27

5.2        Recommendation                                                                                        27

References                                                                                                   28

 Appendix                                                                                                   30

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APA

Harry, G (2019). PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CAKE FROM WHEAT FLOUR USING AVOCADO PASTE AS FAT REPLACER. Afribary.com: Retrieved December 15, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/physical-properties-of-cake-from-wheat-flour-using-avocado-paste-as-fat-replacer

MLA 8th

Gift, Harry. "PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CAKE FROM WHEAT FLOUR USING AVOCADO PASTE AS FAT REPLACER" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 07 Aug. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/physical-properties-of-cake-from-wheat-flour-using-avocado-paste-as-fat-replacer . Accessed 15 Dec. 2019.

MLA7

Gift, Harry. "PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CAKE FROM WHEAT FLOUR USING AVOCADO PASTE AS FAT REPLACER". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 07 Aug. 2019. Web. 15 Dec. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/physical-properties-of-cake-from-wheat-flour-using-avocado-paste-as-fat-replacer >.

Chicago

Gift, Harry. "PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CAKE FROM WHEAT FLOUR USING AVOCADO PASTE AS FAT REPLACER" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed December 15, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/physical-properties-of-cake-from-wheat-flour-using-avocado-paste-as-fat-replacer