PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF COOKIES PRODUCED FROM WHEAT, SORGHUM AND DEFATTED COCONUT FLOUR BLENDS.

Mustapha Alebiosu 101 PAGES (18235 WORDS) Project
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ABSTRACT

Cookies were produced from wheat, sorghum, and defatted coconut flour blends to determine their potentials in cookie manufacture. Eight Cookies formulations were produced and they were evaluated for their proximate, physical, mineral, colour and sensory properties. The result showed that the moisture content ranges from 7.10 to 10.89%, ash content ranges from 0.88 to 1.15%, protein content ranges from 9.18 to 12.25%, crude fat ranges from 9.59 to 11.00%, crude fibre ranges from  2.77 to 3.74%, carbohydrate ranges from 64.20 to 66.71%. Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed  in the mineral composition of the cookie  samples, the calcium content ranged from 101.7 to 259.1mg/100g , potassium content ranges from 188.3 to 345.3mg/100g and the Iron content ranges from 3.73 to 6.58mg/100g. The results obtained from the physical properties showed that the weight ranges from 9.69 to 15.90g, the diameter ranges from 272.0 to 330.0mm, thickness ranges from 7.72 to 11.40mm and the spread ratio ranges from 23.87 to 41.09. The color results obtained after analysis showed the lightness ranged from 62.47 to 68.66, redness ranges from 1.89 to 4.80, and yellowness ranges from 28.71 to 32.75. Sensory ratings revealed that cookies containing up to 5% sorghum flour and above, compared favourably with those made from wheat flour.




                                      TABLE OF CONTENTS


 Contents                                                                                                     Page 

Title page   i                                                                                              Abstract                                                                                                     ii

Table of contents                                                                                         iii

List of tables                                                                                                 xii

List of figures xiii

List of plates                                                                                                 xiii

Abstract xiv

CHAPTER ONE 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Background Statement 1

1.2 Justification 6

1.3 Main Objective 6

1.4 Specific objectives 7



CHAPTER TWO 8

2.0 Literature review

2.1 Cookies 8

2.1.1 Overview of cookies 8

2.1.2 Fortification of cookies 8

2.1.3 Classification of cookies 9

2.2 Techniques for making Cookies 11

2.2.1 Mixing process 11

2.2.2 Moulding process 11

2.2.3 Baking process 11-12

2.3 Functions of Ingredients used in Cookies Production 12

2.3.1 Fat   12

2.3.2 Sugar 12

2.3.3 Egg 12

2.3.4 Milk powder   13

2.3.5 Baking powder 13

2.3.6 Aroma   13

2.3.7 Salt   13

2.4 Celiac Disease 14

2.4.1 Mode of action 14

2.4.2 Symptoms and related conditions 14-15

2.4.3 Diagnosis 15-16

2.5.4 Treatment: Gluten-free diet 16

2.5 Dietary Fibre 17-18

2.6 Wheat 18

2.6.1 Overview of wheat 18-19

Wheat Kernel Structure 19

2.7.1 Germ 19

Endosperm   19-20

Bran 20

2.8 Wheat Flour Production 21-22

 2.9 Types of Wheat Flour 22

2.9.1 High protein flour (hard flour) 22

2.9.2 Medium flour 22

2.9.3 Low-protein flour (soft flour) 22

2.10 Nutritional Content of Wheat 22-24

2.11 Medicinal Properties of Wheat Flour 24-25

2.12 SORGHUM 26

2.12.1 Overview of sorghum 26-27

2.13    Sorghum Production 27-28

2.14 Structure and Appearance 28-30

2.15 Sorghum Composition 31 2.16 Traditional Sorghum Food Products 33-35

2.17 COCONUT 35

2.17.1 Overview of coconut 35-37

2.18 Structure of Coconut 37

2.19 Processing of Coconut Flour 38

2.19.1 Dry process 38

2.19.2 Wet process 38

2.20 Nutrient Composition of Coconut Flour 39

2.20.1 High with indigestible fibre 41

2.20.2 Rich in trace minerals 41-42

2.20.3 Low in digestible carbohydrates 42

2.20.4 Gluten-free and hypoallergenic 42

2.21 Coconut Flour – Food Application 43

2.22 Health Benefits of Coconut Flour 45

2.23 Defatted Coconut Flour 46

2.24 Coconut Water 46

2.25 Coconut Milk 46-47

2.26 Coconut Oil 47

CHAPTER THREE 48

3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS 48

3.1 Materials 48

3.1.1 Source of Raw Material 48

3.2 Methods 48

3.2.1 Production of sorghum flour 48

3.2.2 Coconut flour preparation 50

3.2.3 Production of cookies 52

3.2.4 Formulation of cookies 54

3.3 Analysis of Samples 56

 3.4 Determination of Physical Properties of the Cookies                              56

 3.4.1 Diameter 56

3.4.2 Thickness 56

3.4.3 Spread ratio 56

3.5 Determination of Proximate Analysis 56

3.5.1 Moisture content 56-57

3.5.2 Ash 57

3.5.3 Crude fat 57-58

3.5.4 Protein 58

3.5.5 Crude fibre 58-59

3.5.6 Carbohydrates 59

3.6 Determination of Mineral Content 59

3.7 Sensory Evaluation 59

3.8 Statistical Analysis 59


CHAPTER FOUR 60

4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 60

4.1 The proximate composition of cookies produced from wheat, sorghum and defatted coconut flour blends 60-62

4.2 The mineral composition of cookies produced from wheat, sorghum and defatted coconut flour blends 63

4.3 The physical properties of cookies produced from wheat, sorghum and defatted coconut flour blends 65-67

4.4 The colour attribute of cookies produced from wheat, sorghum and defatted coconut flour blends 68

4.5 The sensory score of cookies produced from wheat, sorghum and defatted coconut flour blends 70


CHAPTER FIVE 72

5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 72

5.1 Conclusion 72

5.2 Recommendations 72


REFERENCES 73-86







LIST OF TABLES

Tables Page 

1. Quality Requirement of Cookies 10

2. Chemical Composition (%) and Anatomical Tissues of Sorghum 32

3. Examples of Traditional Sorghum Products   34

4. Proximate Composition of Coconut Flour 40

5. Formulation of composite flour 55

6. Proximate Composition of Cookies Produced from Wheat, Sorghum and Defatted Coconut Flour Blends 61

7. Mineral Composition of Cookies Produced from Wheat, Sorghum and Defatted Coconut Flour Blends (mg/100g) 64

8. Physical Properties of Cookies Produced from Wheat, Sorghum and Defatted Coconut Flour Blends 66

9. Colour Attribute of Cookies Produced from Wheat, Sorghum and Defatted Coconut Flour Blends 69

10. Sensory Score of Cookies Produced from Wheat, Sorghum and Defatted Coconut Flour Blends 71



LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page

1. Flow chart for the production of sorghum flour 49

2. Flow chat for the production of defatted coconut flour 51

3. Flow chart for the production of cookies 53













LIST OF PLATES

Plate Page

1. Structure of a Wheat Kernel 21

2. Sorghum plant structure   29

3. Sections of a sorghum seed 29

4. Various utilization of coconut milk residue 44


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APA

Mustapha, A (2019). PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF COOKIES PRODUCED FROM WHEAT, SORGHUM AND DEFATTED COCONUT FLOUR BLENDS.. Afribary.com: Retrieved October 16, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/physiochemical-and-sensory-properties-of-cookies-produced-from-wheat-sorghum-and-defatted-coconut-flour-blends

MLA 8th

Alebiosu, Mustapha. "PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF COOKIES PRODUCED FROM WHEAT, SORGHUM AND DEFATTED COCONUT FLOUR BLENDS." Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 10 Jul. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/physiochemical-and-sensory-properties-of-cookies-produced-from-wheat-sorghum-and-defatted-coconut-flour-blends . Accessed 16 Oct. 2019.

MLA7

Alebiosu, Mustapha. "PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF COOKIES PRODUCED FROM WHEAT, SORGHUM AND DEFATTED COCONUT FLOUR BLENDS.". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 10 Jul. 2019. Web. 16 Oct. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/physiochemical-and-sensory-properties-of-cookies-produced-from-wheat-sorghum-and-defatted-coconut-flour-blends >.

Chicago

Alebiosu, Mustapha. "PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF COOKIES PRODUCED FROM WHEAT, SORGHUM AND DEFATTED COCONUT FLOUR BLENDS." Afribary.com (2019). Accessed October 16, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/physiochemical-and-sensory-properties-of-cookies-produced-from-wheat-sorghum-and-defatted-coconut-flour-blends