QUALITY, SENSORY AND STORAGE ATTRIBUTES OF CHEESE PRODUCED FROM COWMILK SUPPLEMENTED WITH TIGERNUT AND COCONUT MILK

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ABSTRACT

Cheese is a concentrated dairy product produced by acid or rennet curdling of milk, stirring and heating the curd, draining off the whey, collecting and pressing the curd. In this study, Cheese was made from cow milk supplemented with tigernut milk and coconut milk in the percentage ratio of 25:25:50; 25:50:25; 50:25:25; 75:25:0; 75:0:25% cow- tigernut milk-coconut milk (v/v). The unsupplemented cow milk cheese was used as control. The quality, shelf life and sensory attributes of the cheese samples were examined. The effect of the supplementation was monitored as the cheese samples were stored at refrigeration temperature(4 C) and examined for yield, total titratable acidity, proximate analysis, microbial analysis and sensory quality. The percentage yield of the cheese samples showed significant differences (p<0.05) and ranged from 17.33 to 13.43% with increase in the percentage tigernut milk and coconut milk in the blends causing an increase and decrease in the percentage yield of the cheese samples respectively. The total titratable acidity decreased significantly (p<0.05) with decrease in percentage cow milk in the blend with the values ranging from 0.30 to 0.23%. The moisture content increased significantly (p<0.05) from 53.18% (C100) to 59.66% (C25S50N25) with increase in coconut milk resulting in an increase in moisture content. The protein content of the samples differed significantly (p<0.05) with values ranging from 18.77 to 14.59%. The fat content ranged from 21.49 to 12.90% with increase in coconut milk. The total ash content ranged between 3.03 and 1.47% while the carbohydrate content ranged from 10.72 to 2.81% with different level of supplementations being significantly different (p<0.05) from the control. Significant differences (p<0.05) was observed in the fungal and bacterial counts at different levels of storage period. SampleC25S50N25 andC75S25N0 showed the highest number of both bacterial and fungal counts respectively. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in color, texture, aroma and overall acceptability of the samples while the taste was judged to be similar. The study recommended that tigernut milk and coconut milk could be used either singularly or as a mix to supplement cow milk up to 50 % without adverse changes or effect on chemical properties, impairing the nutrients and acceptability of the final product. However 25% supplementation of cow milk with the milk substitutes proved to be the best blend based on consumer acceptability.


TABLE OF CONTENT

List of plates

List of tables

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

1.2 Justification of the study

1.3 Objectives of the study

1.3.1 General objective

1.3.1 Specific objective


CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW

Milk Composition

Milk production Milk utilization

Tigernut Production

Nutritional composition of tigernuts Importance of tigernuts

2.3 Coconut 25

2.3.1 Historical development of coconut

2.3.2 Production and cultivation of coconut

2.3.3 Nutritional value of coconut

2.3.4 Utilization of coconut

2.3.5 Coconut milk

2.3.6 Health benefit of coconut

2.4 History and origin of cheese

2.4.1 Production of cheese

2.4.2 Processing and nutrient composition

2.4.3 Cheese in African diet

2.4.4 Ingredient used in cheese production

2.4.5 Steps in conversional cheese production

2.4.6 Steps in local cheese production


CHAPTER THREE

3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1 Material collection and preparation

3.2 Production of tigernut milk

3.3 Production of coconut milk

3.4 Production of cheese (warankashi)

3.5 Proximate analysis

3.5.1 Determination of moisture content of cow-tigernut-coconut cheese

3.5.2 Determination of fat content of cow-tigernut-coconut cheese

3.5.3 Determination of Fatty Acids of cow-tigernut-coconut cheese

3.5.4 Determination of crude protein content of cow-tigernut-coconut cheese

3.5.5 Determination of amino acids content of cow-tigernut-coconut cheese

3.5.6 Determination of crude fibre content of cow-tigernut-coconut cheese

3.5.7 Total ash determination of cow-tigernut-coconut cheese

3.5.8 Determination of carbohydrate content of cow-tigernut-coconut cheese

3.5.9 Determination of percentage yield of cow-tigernut-coconut cheese
3.5.10 Total titratable acidity

3.5.11 Sensory evaluation

3.6 Microbiological Analysis of Cow-Tigernut-Coconut Cheese

3.7 Statistical Analysis


CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Proximate composition of cow-tigernut-coconut cheese

4.2 Percentage yield and Total Titratable Acidity of Cow-Tigernut-Coconut Cheese 4.3 Microbiological quality of cow-tigernut-coconut cheese

4.4 Sensory analysis of cow-tigernut-coconut cheese


CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Conclusion

5.2 Recommendation
REFERENCES

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APA

Africana, P (2021). QUALITY, SENSORY AND STORAGE ATTRIBUTES OF CHEESE PRODUCED FROM COWMILK SUPPLEMENTED WITH TIGERNUT AND COCONUT MILK. Afribary.com: Retrieved March 01, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/quality-sensory-and-storage-attributes-of-cheese-produced-from-cowmilk-supplemented-with-tigernut-and-coconut-milk

MLA 8th

Public Library, Africana. "QUALITY, SENSORY AND STORAGE ATTRIBUTES OF CHEESE PRODUCED FROM COWMILK SUPPLEMENTED WITH TIGERNUT AND COCONUT MILK" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 23 Feb. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/quality-sensory-and-storage-attributes-of-cheese-produced-from-cowmilk-supplemented-with-tigernut-and-coconut-milk . Accessed 01 Mar. 2021.

MLA7

Public Library, Africana. "QUALITY, SENSORY AND STORAGE ATTRIBUTES OF CHEESE PRODUCED FROM COWMILK SUPPLEMENTED WITH TIGERNUT AND COCONUT MILK". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 23 Feb. 2021. Web. 01 Mar. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/quality-sensory-and-storage-attributes-of-cheese-produced-from-cowmilk-supplemented-with-tigernut-and-coconut-milk >.

Chicago

Public Library, Africana. "QUALITY, SENSORY AND STORAGE ATTRIBUTES OF CHEESE PRODUCED FROM COWMILK SUPPLEMENTED WITH TIGERNUT AND COCONUT MILK" Afribary.com (2021). Accessed March 01, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/quality-sensory-and-storage-attributes-of-cheese-produced-from-cowmilk-supplemented-with-tigernut-and-coconut-milk