RACISM AND OPPRESSION IN BLACK AMERICAN LITERATURE: AN EXAMPLE OF RICHARD WRIGHT’S BLACK BOY

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ABSTRACT
It is known fact that racism and oppression are one of the major issues in Black American literature. This study will attempt to make readers realize these themes in Richard Wright’s Black Boy by analyzing the concept of racial segregation of Black in America. We will examine the historical perspective of Black writing narrative and the effects of racism and oppression, which include poverty, hunger assault etc. and the ways through which the blacks reacted to racism. We can claim that Black American literature was written to oppose racism and oppression in all ramifications and also to gain self pride and identity.

INTRODUCTION
Racism in literary studies is defined by Wikipedia as the belief the of genetic factors which constitute race, are the primary determinants of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produces an inherent superiority of a particular race. Racism effects are called racial discrimination. Although the term racism usually denotes race based on prejudice, violence, dislike, discrimination or oppression. Racism is also defined simply as a reflection of the economic system and its cultural, ethnic and political ways. The concept of racism is derived from the word race and it is believed that one racial or ethnic group is inferior to another and the unequal treatment is therefore justified.
According to Charles V. Hamilton and Kwame Ture they defined racism as 
“A prediction of decision and policies on consideration of race for the purpose of subordinating a racial group and maintaining control over that group”.
On the other hand, oppression is defined by the encyclopedia as torture or degrading treatment and the use of threat or violence. It is also the exercise of power/authority in a burden, cruel or unjust manner. Oppression is also defined by Wikipedia as an act or instance of oppressing the state of being oppressed and the feeling of being heavily burdened; mentally or physically by troubles adverse conditions and anxiety.
It is this experience of Black Slaves that Richard Wright tries to capture in BlackBoy (1945). In the text, Wright recalls the plight of the Africans that were sold into slavery between the early 1700’s and 1860’s through the convenience of their own fellow Africans. They were transplanted to American, Canada, the Caribbean Island and other parts of the world. The Africans taken into America were now referred to as “Black Americans” while those on the Caribbean Island are called “Afro Caribbean” but they all have a common roots and common problem- Racial Discrimination. The Africans faced a great ordeal trying to survive hardship on their journey across the Atlantic Ocean on arrival to America; they were conscripted into force labour, maltreated, abused and demoralized on the cotton fields and plantation where they were put to work as slaves. As a result of this hardship deprivation and degradation, the blacks began expressing themselves through Negro spirituals which marked the beginning of the artistic expressions of the emotion. They told stories of unpleasant experience of slavery and oppression through pamphlet and short stories, which formed the basic of Black writings and which were later referred to as “Slave Narrative” or “secret text” because they were written without the knowledge of the slave owners. This inhuman trade led to the transportation of Africans to American to work as slave on the plantation where they experienced unimaginable oppression from the white owner. Many youth are ignorant of this fact and see American as a peaceful place and a bed of roses. 
The project therefore sets out to trace the origin of racism in America and try to expose the horrible experience that the black slaves went through. The experiences of the blacks recounted by Richard Wright in BlackBoy will therefore by analysed to expose the themes of racism and oppression as aspect of the American society.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title pagei
Certification ii
Dedicationiii
Acknowledgement iv
Table of contentv
Abstract vi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of Study1
1.2 Richard Wright’s Autobiography4
1.3 Purpose of Study7
1.4 Scope and Limitation7
1.5 Justification8
1.6 Methodology 9
Endnotes 10

CHAPTER TWO: 
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction11
2.2 Related Slaves Narratives as Racial and Oppression Evidences17
2.3 Black American’s Struggle for Cultural Identity and Self Image21
2.4 Wright’s Attitude Towards the White and Black Worlds24
Endnotes 26

CHAPTER THREE
RACISM AND OPPRESSION IN BLACK AMERICAN LITERATURE: AN EXAMPLE OF RICHARD WRIGHT’S BLACK BOY
3.1 Poverty and Hunger27
3.2 Dehumanization29
3.3 Social Insecurity31
3.4 Disharmony32
3.5 Rejection and Ejection 35
3.6 Physical and Sexual Assault 37
3.7 Reaction of the Characters to Racism and Oppression38
3.7.1 Radicalism38
3.7.2 Intellectualism 39
3.7.3 Violence40
3.7.4 Religious Undertone41

CHAPTER FOUR: 
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
4.1 Summary 44
4.2 Conclusion46
Bibliography47
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APA

Ugwu, A. (2018). RACISM AND OPPRESSION IN BLACK AMERICAN LITERATURE: AN EXAMPLE OF RICHARD WRIGHT’S BLACK BOY. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/racism-and-oppression-in-black-american-literature-an-example-of-richard-wright-rsquo-s-black-boy-7651

MLA 8th

Ugwu, Anderson "RACISM AND OPPRESSION IN BLACK AMERICAN LITERATURE: AN EXAMPLE OF RICHARD WRIGHT’S BLACK BOY" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/racism-and-oppression-in-black-american-literature-an-example-of-richard-wright-rsquo-s-black-boy-7651. Accessed 30 Nov. 2022.

MLA7

Ugwu, Anderson . "RACISM AND OPPRESSION IN BLACK AMERICAN LITERATURE: AN EXAMPLE OF RICHARD WRIGHT’S BLACK BOY". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 30 Nov. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/racism-and-oppression-in-black-american-literature-an-example-of-richard-wright-rsquo-s-black-boy-7651 >.

Chicago

Ugwu, Anderson . "RACISM AND OPPRESSION IN BLACK AMERICAN LITERATURE: AN EXAMPLE OF RICHARD WRIGHT’S BLACK BOY" Afribary (2018). Accessed November 30, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/racism-and-oppression-in-black-american-literature-an-example-of-richard-wright-rsquo-s-black-boy-7651