REVOLUTIONARY AESTHETICS IN NGUGI AND MUGO’S THE TRIAL OF DEDAN KIMATHI AND HUSSEIN’S KINJEKETILE

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ABSTRACT
The attempt in this study is to examine two notable East African plays, The Trial of Dedan Kimathi and Kinjeketile, against the background of revolutionary aesthetics as a means of socio-literary engagement. The work is comparative in nature. The realist dimensions in the realization of the theme of revolution are carefully examined including other major themes like oppression, exploitation, poverty, and so on. Copious inferences were drawn from the examination of the selected works. The study is included on the relevance of realist ideology in an aggressive pursuit of freedom, through revolt, against all human and material weapon of colonialism.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page                              i
Certification                       ii 
Dedication                                   iii
Acknowledgement                                                              iv
Abstract                          vi
Table of Contents                               vii


CHAPTER ONE 
1.1    Introduction                                                                                                          1
1.2    The Struggle for Independence in Africa                                                             4
1.3    Pre-Independent Kenya                                                                                        6
1.4    Pre-Independent Tanzania                                                                                   7
1.5    Purpose of Study                                                                                                  10
1.6    Justification of Study                                                                                           10
1.7    Scope and Limitation                                                                                           11
1.8    Methodology                                                                                                        11
         References                                                                                                            13


CHAPTER TWO
2.1   Literature Review                                                                                                 14
2.2   Ideological Perspectives on Ngugi Wa Thiong’O and Micere Githea Mugo       14
2.3   Ideological Perspectives on Ebrahim Hussein                                                      18
        References                                                                                                             21

CHAPTER THREE
3.1    Introduction                                                                                                          23
3.2    Authorial Background of The Playwrights                                                           23
3.3    Analysis of The Trial of Dedan Kimathi and Kinjeketile                                    25
3.4    Themes and Sub-themes in The Trial of Dedan Kimathi and Kinjeketile           26
         References                                                                                                            48

CHAPTER FOUR      
4.1    Summary                                                                                                              49
4.2    Findings                                                                                                               50
4.3    Conclusion                                                                                                           51
         Bibliography                                                                                                        52

INTRODUCTION

           All African nations except Ethiopia have experienced one colonial administration, or the other. It has grown in leaps from pre-colonial to colonial and post-colonial. This project is concerned with the use of revolutionary aesthetics employed by Ngugi and Mugo in The Trial of Dedan Kimathi and Hussein’s Kinjeketile to conscientize and creates awareness in the people asking them to rise up and change their situation. 
Dating largely from the 1930’s, substantial bodies of literature in many languages exist reflecting revolutionary or otherwise extreme social situation. Literature is written to reflect the happenings in the contemporary society. Ngugi (p.6) asserts that:
Literature is more than just a mechanistic reflection of the social reality… it does shape our attitude to life, the daily struggles within a community, and the daily struggles within our individual souls and selves.

          Literature is a reflection of life which records or imagines actualities in or for the society. It is employed as a weapon of change, i.e., revolution.   
The term “revolution” was coined from the Latin word “revolucio” which means a “turn around”. The Encyclopedia Americana (p.445) defines revolution as:
                             
a struggle, more or less successfully and completely accomplished, in which the ruling power of a country passes from one economic class or political group to another class or group.  
Revolution is the most extreme but necessary social alternative taken when other options or avenues to achieve reforms have been exhausted. It is meant to arouse the consciousness of man with the revolutionary ideology. It also helps man understand, master his environment and fashion it to serve humanity better. According to the Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary (p.1010), revolution is:
“an attempt, by a large number of people, to change the government of a country , especially by violent action
          Revolution can be described as a form of radical change in economy, culture and socio–political institutions as expressed in Merriam–Webster’s dictionary (p.1) that revolution is:
 “an activity or movement designed to effect fundamental change in     the socio-economic situation of man”
Revolution is however regarded as the choice between two alternatives: humanization and dehumanization. Of these two, man’s choice is clear, humanization. But the choice is constantly negated through injustice, exploitation, oppression and the violent of the oppressors. 

However, there are other perspectives of revolution. Attempts have been made by African artists to evolve a revolutionary ideology that will negate the evils of colonialism, neo-colonialism, imperialism and capitalism. The strategic weaponry and ideology in imaginative creativity is the process used. Creativity is the mother of aesthetics. Aesthetics, according to Encyclopedia Britannica (p.277) is “…the philosophy of the science of the beauty of taste or the fine arts…”
The employment of aesthetics in African literature is as old as the vocation itself. From Soyinka to Ngugi, from Hussein to Armah, Africa literature got permeated by beautiful works of art imbued with exciting creativity. That the two attributes of revolution and aesthetics employed in the two texts and the idea that both are revolutionary works that have consciously engaged the medium of drama to covey their important messages cannot be over-emphasized. One can, therefore, see that revolutionary aesthetics play a very great role by ideally and realistically projecting the social structures that influenced the actions of the individuals.
Based on these postulations, committed writers are creating awareness so that with time masses who are conscientized can stand up for their right. The main feature of art in revolution is aimed at empowering the powerless (masses). The aesthetics is in the ability to create social awareness among the oppressed to rise up against their oppressors. Revolutionary aesthetics, therefore, demands among other things the simplicity of expression, humility towards the culture of the people, collective sensibility and the functionality of the message expressed.
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APA

Ugwu, A. (2018). REVOLUTIONARY AESTHETICS IN NGUGI AND MUGO’S THE TRIAL OF DEDAN KIMATHI AND HUSSEIN’S KINJEKETILE. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/revolutionary-aesthetics-in-ngugi-and-mugo-rsquo-s-the-trial-of-dedan-kimathi-and-hussein-rsquo-s-kinjeketile-1416

MLA 8th

Ugwu, Anderson "REVOLUTIONARY AESTHETICS IN NGUGI AND MUGO’S THE TRIAL OF DEDAN KIMATHI AND HUSSEIN’S KINJEKETILE" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/revolutionary-aesthetics-in-ngugi-and-mugo-rsquo-s-the-trial-of-dedan-kimathi-and-hussein-rsquo-s-kinjeketile-1416. Accessed 27 Nov. 2022.

MLA7

Ugwu, Anderson . "REVOLUTIONARY AESTHETICS IN NGUGI AND MUGO’S THE TRIAL OF DEDAN KIMATHI AND HUSSEIN’S KINJEKETILE". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 27 Nov. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/revolutionary-aesthetics-in-ngugi-and-mugo-rsquo-s-the-trial-of-dedan-kimathi-and-hussein-rsquo-s-kinjeketile-1416 >.

Chicago

Ugwu, Anderson . "REVOLUTIONARY AESTHETICS IN NGUGI AND MUGO’S THE TRIAL OF DEDAN KIMATHI AND HUSSEIN’S KINJEKETILE" Afribary (2018). Accessed November 27, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/revolutionary-aesthetics-in-ngugi-and-mugo-rsquo-s-the-trial-of-dedan-kimathi-and-hussein-rsquo-s-kinjeketile-1416