Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is a theory of language study that deals with how language relates to the social structure in term of power and dominance. It also investigates how ideological messages are passed on to the people through texts. This work has focused on the analysis of four selected media jingles (Couch Couples, Gender Equity Campaign, Peer Pressure and Stigma) using CDA with the aim of discovering how the media jingles influence HIV awareness and eradication. The work has adopted Fairclough’s (1995) method of CDA. It has been discovered that the jingles are very influential in the HIV eradication campaigns. The textual analysis has shown how the linguistic elements have helped to entrench the ideological message of HIV eradication .The analysis further reveals that media jingles use short drama pieces as effective means of spreading the message. CDA, therefore could be seen as a rich research tool for investigating text in relations to social structure.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Certification Page ii
Table of Contents vi
1.0 Background of the Study 1
1.1 Aims and Objectives 4
1.2 Justification of the Study 5
1.3 Scope and Delimitation 6
1.4 Research Methodology
2.1 Critical Discourse Analysis 8
2.2 Fairclough’s Method of CDA 20
2.3 Rhetoric 32
2.4 What Mass Media is 34
2.5 Component of Mass Media with special focus on Advert 36
2.6 The place of Radio and Television Advert on intensifying HIV/AIDs
2.7 Conclusion 39
3.0 Introduction 40
3.1 Data Presentation 41
3.2 Data Analysis 46
3.3 Conclusion 70
SUMMARY, FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION
4.1 Summary 71
4.2 Findings 72
4.3 Conclusion 75
Human beings usually employ language for the primary aim of communicating their messages and feelings among themselves. The receivers of the messages are often expected to understand the intentions of the senders through the choices of linguistic form made by the senders. This expectation is a very important facet of communication. Whereas scholars have spent centuries discussing the nature and form of language; very little appear to have been done in analyzing the use of language to be able to bring out the successful or unsuccessful degree of its deployment and the consequences of each outcome. Until Austin (1962), Searle (1969, 1979), and Grice (1975) came to limelight, it would seem that the scrutiny of the pragmatics use to which language is put in communication was simply without any seat not to talk of having a back seat in the journey towards unveiling the complex phenomena of language.
In the ‘Preface’ to the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) ‘HIV&AIDS Research Report and Media Guide’, Gabriel Ayite Baglo, IFJ Africa Regional Director, argues that the media have a crucial role to play in the battle against HIV&AIDS in Africa, because in the United States and India, for example, television, radio and newspapers have been key sources of information on HIV&AIDS. The ‘Foreword’ to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV&AIDS (UNAIDS, 2005, p. 5), explains the rationale for mobilising the media in combating the scourge:
Knowledge is power in the struggle to cope with and contain HIV. People who are well informed about the epidemic are able to assess the threat posed by the virus and to know how best to avoid infection, or, if they are HIV positive, how to look after themselves and their partners and families. But for individuals to be able to act effectively on what they know, they need an enlightened environment. The mass media have a huge contribution to make on both fronts.
According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV&AIDS Reports (UNAIDS, 2005), there are a number of things that the media can do to stem the tide of HIV&AIDS. They include: talking about it; creating a supportive and enabling environment; challenging stigma and discrimination; putting HIV&AIDS on the news agenda and encouraging leaders to take action; promoting HIV&AIDS services; and educating and entertaining (UNAIDS, 2004, pp. 14-24). It is noteworthy that edutainment programmes on radio and television in some African countries like Botswana and South Africa have largely served to inform people about the pandemic.
Efforts have been made by various private bodies, NGOS, Organisations, etc via adverts on bill boards, photographs, media stations etc. to enlighten people on the aftermath of casual sex and other forms of transmission. The effectiveness, efficiency and capability of the media to affect the development of the country largely lie in its communicative, rhetorical and expressive strategies especially in relation to the presentation of jingles and other mass media activities. The major ingredient for carrying out this undertaking is language, in the sense of the deployment of linguistic and communicative facilities in projecting the news and jingles.
The mass media (print and electronic) play a very significant role in disseminating HIV/AIDS messages across to the entire public by acting as a primary agent in fostering it in addition to establishing a campaign to improve reproductive health in the country. It is playing an increasing role to promote awareness of HIV/AIDS transmission routes and prevention.
As the watchdog of society, the mass media subtly dictate the pace of the health sector (and other sectors) and development of any society. This attribute of the mass media springs mainly from its mass reach, communicative verve and the persuasiveness of its reports. Essentially, these features, which draw principally from the communicativeness and expressiveness of its language use, largely mark and define the acclaimed power of the mass media.
This fact and stance inform the position of this essay, which is to examine the discourse implications of mass media jingles as a form of social practice and outcome of power relations. Implied here is the fact that the ideological propositions of media language and the expressiveness of its reporting styles have deep social implications for the sustenance of good health services/awareness. The essay adopts such a stance that the media through the manner of couching its reports and the management of its information dissemination strategies either make or mar a nation, especially a fragile and sensitive democracy such as Nigeria’s.
Considering the centrality of language in human relations, this essay examines language mainly in terms of its functions as a primary device for exercising control and authority i.e. power relations, in other words. This attribute of language enables it to play a more heightened role particularly in media activities. It fundamentally serves as a basic facility of media operations. As such it deserves a prominent place in the examination of media role and effectiveness especially as they relate to its usefulness and effectiveness in the sustenance of health status of the country.
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