Secondary School Design for Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT) A Study on Using Architectural Elements to Combat Security Problems

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ABSTRACT 

Security is a very vital factor for human growth and development. It has also become a major recent issue in buildings and especially, school buildings. Ensuring security in buildings is a collective endeavour with each individual, government, organization, and community having its own role to play. The architect, who is the master builder, is chiefly responsible in ensuring that the built environment meets requirements of security. This report studied the various techniques of achieving security in a built environment through the use of environmental design and thus, architectural elements. It studied widely the principles of CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design), which asserts that “the proper design and effective use of the built environment can lead to a reduction in the fear and incidence of crime, and an improvement in the quality of life. It propagated principles of stopping crime before it happens rather than reacting afterwards. This report also applied its findings in the design of a secondary school.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page ............................................................................................... i

Approval Page ............................................................................................... ii

Dedication ............................................................................................... iii

Acknowledgement ............................................................................................... iv

Table of Contents ............................................................................................... vi

List of Figures ............................................................................................... xiii

List of Plates ............................................................................................... xvi

List of Tables .............................................................................................. xviii

Abstract ............................................................................................... xix

CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction ................................................................................... 2

1.1 Background of Study ................................................................................... 3

1.2 Statement of Architectural Problem ....................................................................... 5

1.3 Aim of the Study ................................................................................... 6

1.4 Objectives of the Study ................................................................................... 6

1.5 Motivation of the Study ................................................................................... 6

1.6 Significance of the Study ................................................................................... 7

1.7 Scope of the Study ................................................................................... 7

1.8 Limitations of the Project ....................................................................... 8

1.9 Research Methodology ................................................................................... 8

1.9.1 Research Design ................................................................................... 8

1.9.2 Research Instrument ....................................................................... 8

1.9.3 Sources of Data ................................................................................... 8

1.9.3.1 Primary Data ....................................................................... 9

1.9.3.2 Secondary Data ....................................................................... 9

1.10 Contribution to Knowledge ................................................................................... 9

CHAPTER TWO - LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Review of Literature ................................................................................... 12

2.0.1 Security Problems ............................................................................ 13

2.0.1.1 Unauthorized Entry ........................................................... 14

2.0.1.2Vandalism ................................................................................... 15

2.0.1.3 Terrorism ................................................................................... 16

2.0.1.4 Accidents ................................................................................... 16

2.0.1.5 Juvenile Delinquency ........................................................... 17

2.1 Historical Background ................................................................................... 22

2.1.1 Components of Human Security ........................................................... 24

2.1.2 Nigerian Condition ....................................................................... 27

2.1.3 Projecting Security ....................................................................... 28

2.1.4 Security Infrastructure ....................................................................... 30

2.2 Theoretical Framework ................................................................................... 30

2.2.1 Passive Security Concepts ....................................................................... 31

2.2.1.1 Building Layout ....................................................................... 32

2.2.1.2 Access to Buildings ........................................................... 34

2.2.1.3 Site Planning, Vehicular and Pedestrian Traffic ............................ 35

2.2.1.4 Landscaping and Lighting ........................................................... 37

2.2.2 Active Security Concepts ........................................................... 37

2.3 Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) ..................................40

2.3.1 Natural Surveillance ....................................................................... 43

2.3.2 Natural Access Control ....................................................................... 44

2.3.3 Territoriality ................................................................................... 45

2.3.4 Maintenance ................................................................................... 45

2.3.5 Participants in CPTED Implementation ............................................... 46

2.3.6 Community Benefits ....................................................................... 46

2.3.7 CPTED Design and Planning Process ............................................... 47

2.3.8 CPTED Guidelines for Various Environments ........................................51

2.3.9 Sample CPTED Guidelines ........................................................... 52

2.3.10 Examples of CPTED Success ........................................................... 54

2.4 Secondary School Design ................................................................................... 55

2.4.1 Building Security ................................................................................... 62

2.4.2 Site Security ................................................................................... 64

2.5 Implementing CPTED in Secondary School Design ..............................................65

2.5.1 Natural Access Control ....................................................................... 65

2.5.2 Natural Surveillance ....................................................................... 66

2.5.3 Territorial Reinforcement ....................................................................... 66

2.5.4 Maintenance ................................................................................... 66

2.5.5 Landscaping Recommendations ........................................................... 67

2.5.6 Lighting Recommendations ....................................................................... 67

2.6 Security Strategy ................................................................................... 68

CHAPTER THREE - GENERAL PLANNING AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES

3.0 General Planning and Design Principles ........................................................... 71

3.1 Principles of Classroom Design ....................................................................... 71

3.2 Principles of the Learning Environment ........................................................... 73

3.3 Design Guidelines ................................................................................... 74

3.4 Design Considerations ................................................................................... 76

3.4.1 Circulation (Lobbies and Walkways) ............................................... 76

3.4.1.1 Wayfinding ................................................................................... 77

3.4.1.2 Entrance ................................................................................... 78

3.4.1.3 Walkways and Paving ........................................................... 79

3.4.1.4 School Paths (Paths for a Pedestrian-Oriented School) ....................79

3.4.2 Lighting ............................................................................................... 79

3.4.2.1 Lighting Basics ....................................................................... 81

3.4.2.2 Natural Lighting for Classrooms .................................................... 84

3.4.2.3 Design Guides in Daylight ........................................................... 86

3.4.2.4 Controlled Daylight ....................................................................... 86

3.4.2.5 Materials and Construction Methods for Shading ........................... 87

3.4.2.6 Glare ................................................................................... 88

3.4.2.7 Use of Local Trees in the School Design ................................... 90

3.4.3 Acoustics ............................................................................................... 91

3.4.3.1 Echoes ................................................................................... 93

3.4.3.2 The Reverberation within a Space ............................................... 93

3.4.3.3 Absorption of Sound ........................................................... 95

3.4.3.4 Undesirable Reflections ........................................................... 95

3.4.3.5 Useful Reflections ........................................................... 96

3.4.3.6 Examples of Good and Bad Classrooms ................................... 97

3.4.4 Building Orientation ....................................................................... 100

3.4.5 Security ............................................................................................... 102

3.4.6 Moisture and Humidity Control ............................................... 102

3.4.7 Handicap Consideration ..............................................................103

3.4.8 Designing for the Future School ........................................................... 104

3.4.8.1 Size (Small vs. Large) ........................................................... 104

3.4.8.2 Spatial Configuration (Compact vs. Decentralized) ....................... 105

3.4.8.3 Boundaries And Accessibility (Open vs. Closed) ....................... 105

3.4.8.4 Functional Organization (Zoning vs. Mixed Uses) ....................... 105

3.4.8.5 Location (Integrated vs. Isolated) ............................................... 106

3.4.9 Designing for Tropics ....................................................................... 106

3.4.10 Site Design Principles ....................................................................... 111

3.4.10.1 Open Space Network ............................................... 111

3.4.10.2 Parking Areas ........................................................... 112

3.5 General Design Planning Principles ........................................................... 113

3.5.1 Public Spaces Planning ....................................................................... 113

3.5.2 Semi-Public Spaces Planning ........................................................... 113

3.6 Spatial Organization ....................................................................................114

3.6.1 Linear Arrangement ........................................................... 115

3.6.2 Central Arrangement ........................................................... 116

3.6.3 Dispersed Arrangement ........................................................... 118

3.6.4 Axial Arrangement ........................................................... 119

3.6.5 Radial Arrangement ......................................................... 120

3.6.6 Clustered Arrangement ........................................................... 120

CHAPTER FOUR - CASE STUDIES

4.0 Introduction ............................................................................................... 123

4.1 Carrying out Case Studies ....................................................................... 123

4.2 Choosing of Case Studies ....................................................................... 124

4.3 Case Study One: Spring Lake Park High School, Minnesota ....................... 125

4.4 Case Study Two: Blenheim High School, Epsom ............................................... 133

4.5 Case Study Three: Niles West High School, Illinois ..............................................141

4.6 Case Study Four: University of Nigeria Secondary School, Enugu ....................... 150

CHAPTER FIVE - SITE STUDIES

5.0 The Study Area ............................................................................................... 157

5.0.1 Brief History: Enugu ....................................................................... 157

5.0.2 Geographical Location ....................................................................... 159

5.0.3 Vegetation ................................................................................... 160

5.0.4 Topography ................................................................................... 161

5.0.5 Macro/Micro Climate ....................................................................... 161

5.0.6 Population ................................................................................... 171

5.0.7 Water Supply ................................................................................... 172

5.0.8 Social Infrastructure ....................................................................... 173

5.0.9 Industry ................................................................................... 173

5.1 Site Selection Criteria .................................................................................. 174

5.1.1 Site Location ................................................................................... 174

5.1.2 Land Area ................................................................................... 176

5.1.3 Expansion Potential ....................................................................... 176

5.1.4 Topography ................................................................................... 176

5.1.5 Accessibility ................................................................................... 176

5.2 Site Character and Analyses ....................................................................... 177

5.2.1 Topography of Site ....................................................................... 177

5.2.2 Prevailing Winds ....................................................................... 178

5.2.3 Sun Path ................................................................................... 178

5.2.4 Noise Sources ................................................................................... 179

CHAPTER SIX - DESIGN SYNTHESIS

6.0 Design Synthesis ................................................................................... 181

6.0.1 Tools for Synthesizing Data ........................................................... 181

6.1 Design Philosophy ................................................................................... 186

6.2 Design Concept ................................................................................... 188

6.3 Population of the School ....................................................................... 190

6.4 Spaces/Functional Analysis ....................................................................... 191

6.4.1 The Administrative Area ........................................................... 191

6.4.1.1 Reception/Waiting Lounge ........................................................... 192

6.4.1.2 Principal and Deputy Principal’s Offices ................................... 193

6.4.1.3 Bursary ................................................................................... 193

6.4.1.4 Records ................................................................................... 193

6.4.1.5 Auditorium ....................................................................... 194

6.4.1.6 Board Room ....................................................................... 195

6.4.1.7 Cafeteria ................................................................................... 195

6.4.1.8 Kitchen ................................................................................... 198

6.3.1.9 Seminar Room ....................................................................... 199

6.4.1.10Conveniences ....................................................................... 199

6.4.2 Academic Houses ....................................................................... 201

6.4.2.1 Classrooms ....................................................................... 201

6.4.2.2 Libraries ................................................................................... 203

6.4.2.3 Laboratories and Workshops ............................................... 205

6.4.2.4 Computer Rooms ........................................................... 207

6.4.2.5 Staff Rooms ....................................................................... 208

6.4.2.6 Counsellor's Offices ........................................................... 208

6.4.2.7 Storage/Utility ....................................................................... 208

6.4.2.8 Conveniences ....................................................................... 208

6.4.3 Circulation Spaces .......................................................................... 209

6.4.4 Medical Block ................................................................................... 211

6.4.5 Outdoor Activities ....................................................................... 211

6.4.5.1 Recreation Facilities ........................................................... 211

6.4.5.2 Agricultural Activities ........................................................... 212

6.4.5.3 Busing and Parking Facilities ............................................... 213

6.5 Building Materials ................................................................................... 215

6.6 Construction Methods ................................................................................... 215

6.7 Design Contribution ................................................................................... 215

6.8 Recommendation and Conclusion ........................................................... 216

Bibliography ........................................................................................................... 218

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APA

Consults, E. & NNEOMA, N (2022). Secondary School Design for Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT) A Study on Using Architectural Elements to Combat Security Problems. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/secondary-school-design-for-enugu-state-university-of-science-and-technology-esut-a-study-on-using-architectural-elements-to-combat-security-problems

MLA 8th

Consults, Education, and NNABUKO NNEOMA "Secondary School Design for Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT) A Study on Using Architectural Elements to Combat Security Problems" Afribary. Afribary, 01 Dec. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/secondary-school-design-for-enugu-state-university-of-science-and-technology-esut-a-study-on-using-architectural-elements-to-combat-security-problems. Accessed 31 Jan. 2023.

MLA7

Consults, Education, and NNABUKO NNEOMA . "Secondary School Design for Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT) A Study on Using Architectural Elements to Combat Security Problems". Afribary, Afribary, 01 Dec. 2022. Web. 31 Jan. 2023. < https://afribary.com/works/secondary-school-design-for-enugu-state-university-of-science-and-technology-esut-a-study-on-using-architectural-elements-to-combat-security-problems >.

Chicago

Consults, Education and NNEOMA, NNABUKO . "Secondary School Design for Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT) A Study on Using Architectural Elements to Combat Security Problems" Afribary (2022). Accessed January 31, 2023. https://afribary.com/works/secondary-school-design-for-enugu-state-university-of-science-and-technology-esut-a-study-on-using-architectural-elements-to-combat-security-problems