Sexual abuse and exploitation of the girl child through cultural practices in Sudan in Legal view.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION ............................................................................................................................ ii

APRROVAL. ................................................................................................................................ iii

DEDICATION .............................................................................................................................. iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .............................................................................................................. v

LIST OF CRONYMS ..................................................................................................................... vi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................... 1

1.0 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 1

1.2 Background to the study ..................................................................................................... 1

1.3 Statement of the problem ................................................................................................... 8

1.4 Objectives of the study ........................................................................................................ 8

1 .5 Research Questions ............................................................................................................ 9

1.6 Scope of the study ............................................................................................................... 9

I . 7 Significance of the study ...................................................................................................... 9

1.8 Literature Review ................................................................................................................. 9

1.8.11ntroduction ...................................................................................................................... 9

1.9 Methodology ..................................................................................................................... 11

1.9.2 Research Design .............................................................................................................. 11

'·· 1.9.3 Study population ...................................................................................... :::-:-.: ................ 11

1.10 Area of Study ................................................................................................................... 11

1.11 Sampling Size ................................................................................................................... 11

1.12 Sources of data ................................................................................................................ 11

1.13 Research instruments and data collection methods ....................................................... 12

1.14 Questionnaires ................................................................................................................. 12

1.1S Interviews ........................................................................................................................ 12

1.16 Focus Group interviews ................................................................................................... 12

1.17 Observation ..................................................................................................................... 12

1.18 Review of documents ...................................................................................................... 12

1.19 Data processing and Analysis .......................................................................................... 12

vii

CHAPTER 2 ........................................................................................................................... 13

Child sexual abuse and exploitation; conceptual and international protection ........... 13

2.11ntroduction ....................................................................................................................... 13

2.2 Concept of Girl Childhood ................................................................................................. 13

2.3 Sexual abuse and exploitation Defined ............................................................................. 13

2.4 Concept of child sexual abuse ........................................................................................... 14

2.5 Concept of child sexual exploitation ................................................................................. 15

2.6 International and national protection against sexual abuse and exploitation of girl child .

................................................................................................................................................. 16

2.7 Conclusion ......................................................................................................................... 23

CHAPTER 3 ........................................................................................................................... 24

Cultural practices, family and children's rights ................................................................. 24

3.11ntroduction ....................................................................................................................... 24

3.2 Culture defined .................................................................................................................. 24

3.3 The family defined ............................................................................................................. 25

3.4 The family in international law context.. ........................................................................... 26

3.5 The, cultural practices, family and children's rights observance ...................................... 27

3.6 Conclusion ......................................................................................................................... 29

CHAPTER 4 ............................................................................................................................... 30

Cultural practices and girl child human right not to be sexual abuse or exploited in Sudan. 30

4.11ntroduction ....................................................................................................................... 30

4.2 The human rights of the girl's child ................................................................................... 31

4.3 The cultural Practices and children's right in Sudan's constitution .................................. 33

4.4 Marriage defined ............................................................................................................... 34

4.5 The marriage transaction .................................................................................................. 34

4.6 Child marriages defined ..................................................................................................... 35

4.7 Legal position in Sudan ...................................................................................................... 38

4.8 Forced marriage ................................................................................................................. 39

4.9 Marriage by Abduction ...................................................................................................... 39

4.10 Legal position ................................................................................................................... 41

viii

4.11 Marriage as sexual exploitation ...................................................................................... 41

4.12 Dowry ............................................................................................................................... 43

4.13 Bride wealth or mahal ..................................................................................................... 43

4.14 The legal position in Sudan .............................................................................................. 45

4.15 Female Genital Mutilation ............................................................................................... 46

4.16 Legal position in Sudan .................................................................................................... 51

4.17 Tradition, religion and the legal age of marriage .............................................. 51

4.18 Legal position in Sudan .................................................................................................... 52

CHAPTER 5 ........................................................................................................................... 54

Conclusion and recommendations ..................................................................................... 54

5.1 Conclusion ......................................................................................................................... 54

5.2 Recommendations ............................................................................................................. 55

5.2.1 Legal measures ............................................................................................................... 56

5.2.2 Female Genital Mutilation is a sexual and reproductive health concern ...................... 57

5.2.4 Community level ............................................................................................................. 58

5.2.5 Public declarations: a powerful means of persuasion ................................................... 58

5.2.6 Engaging traditional and religious leaders as agents of change .................................... 58

5.2.7 The importance of banning the 'medicalization of FGM/C ............................................ 59

5.2.8 Effective media campaigns shape attitudes ................................................................... 59

5.2.9 A human-rights based legal framework accelerates abandonment .............................. 60

5.2.10 Socio- economic measures ........................................................................................... 61

5.2.11 National level ................................................................................................................ 64

5.2.12 Mandatory reporting of all cases of sexual abuse ....................................................... 64

5.2.13 Non-Governmental Organisations level ....................................................................... 65

5.2.14 Educational measures .................................................................................................. 65

5.2.15 International legal framework ...................................................................................... 66

Bibliography ............................................................................................................................ 68


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APA

Frontiers, E. & Makuach, M (2022). Sexual abuse and exploitation of the girl child through cultural practices in Sudan in Legal view.. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/sexual-abuse-and-exploitation-of-the-girl-child-through-cultural-practices-in-sudan-in-legal-view

MLA 8th

Frontiers, Edu, and Mangar Makuach "Sexual abuse and exploitation of the girl child through cultural practices in Sudan in Legal view." Afribary. Afribary, 17 Aug. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/sexual-abuse-and-exploitation-of-the-girl-child-through-cultural-practices-in-sudan-in-legal-view. Accessed 01 Oct. 2022.

MLA7

Frontiers, Edu, and Mangar Makuach . "Sexual abuse and exploitation of the girl child through cultural practices in Sudan in Legal view.". Afribary, Afribary, 17 Aug. 2022. Web. 01 Oct. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/sexual-abuse-and-exploitation-of-the-girl-child-through-cultural-practices-in-sudan-in-legal-view >.

Chicago

Frontiers, Edu and Makuach, Mangar . "Sexual abuse and exploitation of the girl child through cultural practices in Sudan in Legal view." Afribary (2022). Accessed October 01, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/sexual-abuse-and-exploitation-of-the-girl-child-through-cultural-practices-in-sudan-in-legal-view