The overall research problem addressed in this study was that despite the Government
having injected a lot of funds on supervision of schools, skills and methods employed are
far from adequate. Little has been done to analyze the impact of skill and methodological
constraints to effective instructional supervision. The continued decline in the quality of
education especially in public primary schools has brought supervision to sharp focus. It
was against this backdrop that the researcher carried out a study on skills and
methodological constraints to effective instructional supervision of public primary
schools in Central Division of Mumias District and offered recommendations to improve
methods of supervision which would subsequently lead to improved education standards.
The objectives of the study were to analyze supervision styles preferred, find out the
skills or techniques used in supervisory activities, and investigate ways commonly used
to supervise curriculum implementation by supervisors. The study adopted descriptive
survey design. The study was done in Central Division of Mumias District and the target
population consisted of 23 headteachers, 23 deputy headteachers and 23 senior teachers
plus 2 Quality Assuarance and Standards Officers (QASOs) in the Division. The
researcher drew a sample from the 23 primary schools through simple random sampling.
The researcher wrote the names of the 23 primary schools on separate pieces of paper
equal size, folded and mixed them. The researcher then randomly picked 12 papers and
wrote down the names of the schools which were then included in the study. The
researcher purposively picked 3 teachers from each school i.e., the head teacher, deputy
head teacher and senior teacher plus 2 Quality Assuarance and Standards Officer who
gave a total sample of 38. The questionnaires and interview schedule formed the basic
research instruments. Piloting determined the validity and reliability of the instruments.
Quantitative data analysis method was applied whereby data collected were edited,
coded and entered in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Computer
Program Version 17.0, from which descriptive statistics (means, percentages,
frequencies, and standard deviations) where possible were used to analyze data. The
results of data analysis were then presented in frequency tables, bar graphs and pie charts.
The qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. This was done by identifying
information that was relevant to research questions and objectives, developed a coding
system, indicated the major themes, placed the coded material under the major themes,
developed a summary report, and identified major themes and the association between
them. The researcher then used graphics and direct quotations to present the findings.
Qualitative data were also analyzed by triangulation this was where two or more persons
independently analyzed the same data set and compared findings. The final findings
showed that there were skills and methodological constraints to instructional supervision.
These were lack of employing all supervision styles, inadequate methods were used in
curriculum implementation, and there was lack of training. The researcher recommended
that supervisors should put more emphasis on all supervision styles, attend regular inservice training so as to keep supervisors abreast with new supervisory techniques and
fade out the outdated techniques and poor human relation skills. Supervisors should apply
all methods used to supervise curriculum implementation and be more involved in the
classroom observation so as to really know the situation on the ground. Strengthened
good and friendly working relationship should exist between the supervisors and teachers
so that instructional supervision is carried out in a friendly environment.
Edu, F (2021). Skills And Methodological Constraints To Effective Instructional Supervision In Public Primary Schools In Central Division, Mumias District, Kenya. Afribary.com: Retrieved June 19, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/skills-and-methodological-constraints-to-effective-instructional-supervision-in-public-primary-schools-in-central-division-mumias-district-kenya
Frontiers, Edu. "Skills And Methodological Constraints To Effective Instructional Supervision In Public Primary Schools In Central Division, Mumias District, Kenya" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 04 Jun. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/skills-and-methodological-constraints-to-effective-instructional-supervision-in-public-primary-schools-in-central-division-mumias-district-kenya . Accessed 19 Jun. 2021.
Frontiers, Edu. "Skills And Methodological Constraints To Effective Instructional Supervision In Public Primary Schools In Central Division, Mumias District, Kenya". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 04 Jun. 2021. Web. 19 Jun. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/skills-and-methodological-constraints-to-effective-instructional-supervision-in-public-primary-schools-in-central-division-mumias-district-kenya >.
Frontiers, Edu. "Skills And Methodological Constraints To Effective Instructional Supervision In Public Primary Schools In Central Division, Mumias District, Kenya" Afribary.com (2021). Accessed June 19, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/skills-and-methodological-constraints-to-effective-instructional-supervision-in-public-primary-schools-in-central-division-mumias-district-kenya