SOIL CHARACTERIZATION, GENESIS, CLASSIFICATION AND LAND SUITABILITY EVALUATION OF KULUMSA SUBWATERSHED, ARSI, ETHIOPIA

Abstract:

Environmental factors such as topography, climate, geology, biotic factors and land-use activities are largely responsible for creating local differences in soil characteristics. These in turn create variations in the agricultural potential and management options of the soils that need detailed study in order to have adequate and comprehensive information and be able to solve site specific problems related to their sustainable use. However, there exists still a dearth of data in this aspect in Ethiopia in general and in Arsi Zone in particular. Cognizant of this fact, the present study was carried out in Kulumsa Subwatershed (KSW) as part of the Arsi-Highlands with the main objective to generate information through environmental and soil morphological description, soil characterization, genesis and classification as well as land suitability evaluation for rain fed production of the major food crops of KSW (teff, bread wheat, barley and faba bean) at an intermediate level of inputs and management. Soils of KSW were surveyed and 19 representative profile locations identified and sampled based on 1:50,000 scale topographic map using free survey along altitudinal and latitudinal transects; 103 bulk soil samples, 75 core soil samples and 8 rock samples were collected and analyzed. The sampled pedons were categorized into 10 Reference Soil Groups (RSG) based on FAO-World Reference Base and delineated into 8 soil mapping units (SMU) and 7 land mapping units (LMU). The study area was characterized by a strong physiographic diversity, so that areas with a rugged topography and sloping to steep major landforms comprised altogether about 75% of the total area. The proportion of relatively level land was only about 21% and 4% was occupied by a mixture of dissected plain and depression that had also certain ruggedness. The great altitudinal variation (1810-4000 masl and 2190 m elevation range) and topographic ruggedness were the main causes of the differences in micro-climate, landforms, vegetation types, land-use patterns and thereby the soils. Several soil characteristics such as effective soil depth, horizonation, soil color, internal drainage, average clay content, etc. seemed to be affected mainly by the slope; whereas solum thickness appeared to be linked to annual rainfall amount and slope. The clay content increased with depth up to the B horizon, and about 90% of the profiles had clayey texture in their subsoils or throughout even though almost all had well-drained profiles except few with hydromorphic properties, which may be attributed mainly to the aggregating effect of Ca that dominated the exchange complex. The trends observed in the FC and PWP values conformed to that of clay content by increasing with increasing clay content, whereas available water and drainable porosity records had the reverse trend. There was a linear correlation between altitude and several chemical soil characteristics. Accordingly, a direct relationship was detected between the mean topsoil SOM, TN, Olsen-P (mg/kg) and mean subsoil variable negative charge values (cmolc/kg and as percent of CEC7) and altitude; and an inverse relationship between mean subsoil pH, CEC7, sum of exchangeable bases, base saturation (PBS) and %CaCO3 and altitude. The degree of leaching assessed in terms of PBS increased also with altitude with the least leached profile at 2050 masl and most leached one at 3800 masl; whereby exchangeable K and Mg values that implied their deficiency, were also encountered mainly in pedons of higher elevation areas above 2600 masl. Even though there were acidic soils with pH records as low as 5.15 within their profile and PBS below 50%, the problem of exchangeable Al was not observed, most likely due to the chelating effect of SOM. Olsen-extracted P values in mg/kg were rated as low (6-10) to very low (
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APA

Alemu, K (2024). SOIL CHARACTERIZATION, GENESIS, CLASSIFICATION AND LAND SUITABILITY EVALUATION OF KULUMSA SUBWATERSHED, ARSI, ETHIOPIA. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/soil-characterization-genesis-classification-and-land-suitability-evaluation-of-kulumsa-subwatershed-arsi-ethiopia

MLA 8th

Alemu, Kebede "SOIL CHARACTERIZATION, GENESIS, CLASSIFICATION AND LAND SUITABILITY EVALUATION OF KULUMSA SUBWATERSHED, ARSI, ETHIOPIA" Afribary. Afribary, 12 Apr. 2024, https://afribary.com/works/soil-characterization-genesis-classification-and-land-suitability-evaluation-of-kulumsa-subwatershed-arsi-ethiopia. Accessed 30 May. 2024.

MLA7

Alemu, Kebede . "SOIL CHARACTERIZATION, GENESIS, CLASSIFICATION AND LAND SUITABILITY EVALUATION OF KULUMSA SUBWATERSHED, ARSI, ETHIOPIA". Afribary, Afribary, 12 Apr. 2024. Web. 30 May. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/soil-characterization-genesis-classification-and-land-suitability-evaluation-of-kulumsa-subwatershed-arsi-ethiopia >.

Chicago

Alemu, Kebede . "SOIL CHARACTERIZATION, GENESIS, CLASSIFICATION AND LAND SUITABILITY EVALUATION OF KULUMSA SUBWATERSHED, ARSI, ETHIOPIA" Afribary (2024). Accessed May 30, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/soil-characterization-genesis-classification-and-land-suitability-evaluation-of-kulumsa-subwatershed-arsi-ethiopia

Document Details
Kebede, Alemu Field: Soil Science Type: Thesis 370 PAGES (133642 WORDS) (pdf)