STABILIZATION OF SILTY CLAY SOIL USING CEMENT AND SAW DUST ASH samson et al

Samson Shehu 121 PAGES (20730 WORDS) Dissertation
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ABSTRACT

Soils containing large quantities of clay and silt are the most burdensome to the engineer. These soils exhibit marked changes in volume with changes in water content and consequently affect the function of any layer lain upon it due to its shrink and up heave behavior when used as a subgrade or a layer built of it. The test assesses the geotechnical characteristics of silty clay soil in order to increase the shear strength and decrease the compressibility of the soil, so that the bearing capacity of the soil is increased and the settlement of the structures built on it are reduced by stabilization using saw dust ash SDA and cement. And to find out the optimum mix for percentage addition of saw dust ash to achieve most beneficial improvement of soil and reduce the cost of cement in soil cement stabilization. Preliminary test were carried out on the native soil sample for identification and classification. SDA was added on varying percentages of 2, 4, 6 and 8% with a constant percentage of cement by total weight of soil. Addition of SDA decreased the unit weight from 390g/cm3 to 370g/Cm3and increased the C and Φ at 8% SDA addition from 8kN/m2and 60 to 16kN/m2 and 130. The values of MDD increased from 1.77kg/m3 to 1.83kg/m3 and OMC increased from 19% to 29% at 6 and 8% SDA addition. The values of LL and PI reduced from 52% and 11.3% to 26.5 and 4.45 % at 8% SDA addition. The consolidation characteristics are also observed to reduce from 17.10m2/year to 9.71m2/year, while the CBR increased from 2.1% to 12.57%. It is therefore concluded that 8% SDA addition is the optimum mix and can be accepted that saw dust ash can be used as a cheap stabilizing agent for silty clay.


Title Page……………………………………………………………………………….i

Declaration Page……………………………………………………………………….ii

Approval Page…………………………………………………………………………iii

Dedication Page……………………………………………………………………….iv

Acknowledgement Page……………………………………………………………….v

Table of Content………………………………………………………………………vi

List of figures………………………………………………………………………….x

List of tables...................................................................................................................xi

List of Symbols and Abbreviations…………………………………………………..xii

Abstract………………………………………………………………………………xiii

Contents

CHAPTER ONE.. 14

1.0 Introduction. 14

1.2 Problem Statement 15

1.1      Aims and Objectives. 16

1.2.1 Aim.. 16

1.2.2 Objectives. 16

1.3 Methodology. 16

1.4      Significance of Study. 17

1.5 Scope of Project 18

1.6 Limitation. 18

CHAPTER TWO.. 19

2.0 Literature Review.. 19

2.1 Soil Stabilization. 21

2.2 Classification of Soil 23

2.2.1 Field Identification and Classification. 23

2.2.1 AASHTO Soil Classification System.. 24

2.2.2 Unified Soil Classification System.. 26

2.2.3   Highway Soil Classification System.. 29

2.2.2      Laboratory Classification. 30

2.3 Components of Soil-Cement Stabilization. 34

2.3.1      Soil 34

2.3.2      Stabilizing Agents. 35

2.3.2.1 Cement 35

2.3.2.2 Lime. 37

2.3.2.3   Fly–Ash. 39

2.3.2.4 Blast Furnace Slags. 40

2.3.2.5 Pozzolanas. 41

2.3.2.6 Saw Dust Ash. 42

2.4 Suitability of Materials for Soil-Cement Stabilization. 44

2.5 Sampling of Material to Be Stabilized. 45

2.6 Factors Affecting the Strength of Stabilized Soil 45

2.6.1 Organic Matter 45

2.6.2 Sulphates. 45

2.6.3      Sulphides. 46

2.6.4 Compaction. 46

2.6.5 Moisture Content 47

2.6.6 Temperature. 48

2.6.7      Freeze-Thaw and Dry-Wet Effect 48

2.5 Stabilization Methods. 48

2.5.1 In–Situ Stabilization. 48

2.5.2      Deep Mixing Method. 49

2.5.3      Wet Mixing. 50

2.5.4      Dry Mixing. 51

2.5.5      Mass Stabilization. 52

2.5.6      Ex-Situ Stabilization. 54

2.6 Quality Control and Quality Assurance. 54

2.7 Applications. 55

CHAPTER THREE. 56

3.0      Materials and Methodology. 56

3.1      Tests for Selection Of Materials To Be Stabilised. 57

3.2      Laboratory And Field Test Were Conducted In Accordance With: 58

3.3 Preliminary Investigation Tests. 58

3.3.1      Laboratory Tests Conducted On Obtained Soil Samples. 58

3.3.2      Laboratory Test Conducted On Cement 59

3.3.3 Laboratory Test Conducted On Water Sample. 60

3.3.4 Preparation of Sawdust 60

3.4 Laboratory Control Test to Determine the Most Efficient Percentage Addition. 60

3.4.1 Procedure for Estimation of Cement Content 60

3.5 Procedures for the Laboratory Test Conducted On the Natural Soil Sample. 62

3.5.1      Natural Moisture Content Test 62

3.5.2      Atterberg’s Limits Test 64

3.5.2.1   Liquid Limit Test (Casagrande Method) 64

3.5.2.2 Plastic Limit and Plasticity Index. 67

3.5.2.3     Linear Shrinkage. 68

3.5.3      B.S Compaction Test (Standard Proctor Test) 70

3.5.4      California Bearing Ratio. 75

3.5.5      Sieve Analysis Test (Grain Size Analysis) 78

3.5.6      Specific Gravity Test 80

3.5.7 Triaxial Test - Undrained Shear Strength (Total Stress) 82

3.6 Laboratory Test on Water Sample. 88

3.6.1 Ph and Temperature Test 88

CHAPTER FOUR.. 91

4.0 Analysis of Test Results. 91

4.0.1      Cement Test Result 91

4.0.2      Water Test Results. 92

4.0.3      Test Result on Soil 95

4.0.3.1 Atterberg’s Limit Test 95

4.0.3.1.1 Liquid Limit Test 95

4.0.3.1.2 Plastic Limit 96

4.0.3.1.3 Plasticity Index. 96

4.0.3.1.4 Linear Shrinkage (Ls) 97

4.0.3.2 Moisture Content Test 97

4.0.3.3 Triaxial Test Result 98

4.0.3.4 Particle Size Distribution (Sieve Analysis) Test Result 100

4.0.3.5 Specific Gravity Test Result 101

4.0.3.6 Compaction Test 102

4.0.3.7   California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Test Result 104

4.0.3.8      Consolidation Test Calculation for Settlement Parameters. 104

4.0.3.9 Bearing Capacity Computation. 106

4.1 Discussion of Result 110

4.1.1 Discussion of Cement Test Result 110

4.1.2 Discussion of Soil Test Result 110

4.1.3      Discussion of Water Analysis Results. 111

Table 4.12:  Summary for Result of Analysis of Water 112

CHAPTER FIVE. 113

5.1 Conclusion. 113

5.2 Recommendation. 113

REFERENCES. 115

APPENDIX.. 118

PLATES. 119

 

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APA

Samson, S (2018). STABILIZATION OF SILTY CLAY SOIL USING CEMENT AND SAW DUST ASH samson et al. Afribary.com: Retrieved March 24, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/stabilization-of-silty-clay-soil-using-cement-and-saw-dust-ash-samson-et-al

MLA 8th

Shehu, Samson. "STABILIZATION OF SILTY CLAY SOIL USING CEMENT AND SAW DUST ASH samson et al" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 18 Dec. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/stabilization-of-silty-clay-soil-using-cement-and-saw-dust-ash-samson-et-al . Accessed 24 Mar. 2019.

MLA7

Shehu, Samson. "STABILIZATION OF SILTY CLAY SOIL USING CEMENT AND SAW DUST ASH samson et al". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 18 Dec. 2018. Web. 24 Mar. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/stabilization-of-silty-clay-soil-using-cement-and-saw-dust-ash-samson-et-al >.

Chicago

Shehu, Samson. "STABILIZATION OF SILTY CLAY SOIL USING CEMENT AND SAW DUST ASH samson et al" Afribary.com (2018). Accessed March 24, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/stabilization-of-silty-clay-soil-using-cement-and-saw-dust-ash-samson-et-al