State of water Supply in Minna metropolis

Muhammad Gbodoti Usman 87 PAGES (17571 WORDS) Project
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Tittle Page…………………………………………………………………………….i
Approval Page ..............................................................................................................ii
Dedication......................................................................................................................iii
Acknowledgements....................................................................................................... iv
Table of Contents ......................................................................................................... v
List of Tables................................................................................................................vi
List of Figures…………………………………………………………………………vii
List of Acronyms...........................................................................................................viii
Abstract.........................................................................................................................ix
CHAPTER ONE:        INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study …................................................................................. 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem......................................................................................3 
1.3 Research Questions ...............................................................................................5
1.4 Objectives of the Study ..........................................................................................5
1.5 Hypotheses of the Study …………………………………………………………6
1.6 Significance of the Study .......................................................................................6
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study .......................................................................8
1.8 Operationalization of the Key Concepts………………………………………..8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Introduction.............................................................................................................10
2.2 Sources of Water Supply..........................................................................................10
2.3 Nature of Water Supply............................................................................................11
2.4 Factors for Inadequate Water Supply....................................................................12
2.5 Processes for Improving the Level of Accessibility of Safe Drinking Water…..14
2.6 Theoretical Framework: Triple-S Theory and Trans-Theoretical Model .........16
CHAPTER THREE:    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................24
3.2 Research Design .......................................................................................................24
3.3 Study Setting: Minna Metropolis, Niger State ......................................................25
3.4 Population of the Study ...........................................................................................29
3.5 Sample Size and Sampling Technique ...................................................................29
3.6 Instruments for Data Collection .............................................................................31
3.7 Methods of Data Collection ....................................................................................31
3.8 Methods of Data Analysis........................................................................................33
3.9 Ethical Issues in the Study.......................................................................................34
3.10 Problems Encounter in the Field ..........................................................................34
CHAPTER FOUR:    DATA ANALYSIS, INTEPRETATION AND DISCUSSION 
4.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................36
4.2 Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents………………………………36
4.3 Sources of Water supply …………………………………….................................40
4.4 Nature of Water Supply ……………………………………..................................47
4.5 Factors for Inadequate Water Supply …………………………………………49
4.6 Processes of improving Level of Accessibility to Water Supply ……………..53
4.7 Testing of Hypotheses…………………………………….……………………..58
4.8 Discussion of the Major Findings………………………………………………65
4.8 Contributions of the Study to the Body of Knowledge………………………..67
CHAPTER FIVE:  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………….69
5.2 Summary of the Major Findings .......................................................................69
5.3 Conclusion ...........................................................................................................71
5.4 Recommendations ...............................................................................................71
5.5 Suggestions for Further Research………………………..……………………72
REFERENCES ..........................................................................................................73
Appendix I …………………………………………………………………………..77
Appendix II…………………………………………………………………………84
Appendix II…………………………………………………………………………85










LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.2.1: Distribution of the Respondents by Sex and Age Category……………36
Table 4.2.2: Distribution of Respondents by Marital Status, Ethnic Group and Religious     Affiliation ……………………………………………………………………37
Table 4.2.3: Distribution of Respondents by Occupation and Level of Education......38
Table 4.2.4: Distribution of Respondents by Monthly Income....................................39
Table 4.2.5: Distribution of Respondents by Residential Area....................................39
Table 4.3.1:  Borehole Method Use in Fetching Water and Tap-Water Connection Type
………………………………………………………………………………………40
Table 4.3.2: Affordability and Accessibility of Tap-Water ………………………...41
Table 4.3.3: Using Borehole its Accessibility and Affordability……………………42
4.3.4:  The Type of Well-Water and Method use in Fetching the Water……………43
Table 4.3.5: Nature of the  Constructed Well……………………………………….44
Table 4.3.5: Using Well-Water, the Affordability and Accessibility……………….45
Table 4.3.6:  Accessibility to and Affordability of Rain Water……………………..46
Table 4.3.7: Perceived Best Water Sources………………………..……………..…47
Table 4.4.1: Nature of Clean and Coloured of Water Supply……………………….48
Table 4.4.2:   Test less Nature of Water Supply…………………………………….49
Table 4.5.1: Likely Causes and anti-social behaviour that Contribute to Inadequate
Water Supply………………………………………………………………...50
Table 4.5.2: Frequent of Water Supply and Factors Responsible for Inadequate of
Water     Supply……………………………………………………………………….51
Table 4.5.3 Political Influence and  Attitude of Officials Leads to Inadequate
 Water     Supply……………………………………………………………….52
Table 4.5.4 energy and equipment responsible for inadequate water supply……….53
Table 4.6.1 Processes for improving water and Reccommended for Efficient……..54
Table 4.6.2 Suggestion to Improve Borehole Water and Tap-Water Supply……….55
Table 4.6.3 If Spring/River, Suggest and Thought to Improve Water Supply……...56
Table 4.6.4 Advice to the Govt, NGO, and Wealthy Individual Citizens…….…….57
Table 4.6.4 Suggestion for Way Forward…………………………………………...57
Table 4.7.1a: 3 X 3 Contingency Table of Chi-Square: Income and Water Source..59
Table 4.7.1b: Chi-Square Tests – Income and Water Sources…………………...59
Table 4.7.2a: 3x3 Contingency Table of Chi-Square Level and Nature of Water 61
Table 4.7.2b: Chi-Square Tests – Education Level and Nature of Water available 62
Table 4.7.3a: 3 X 3 Contingency Table of Chi-Square: Occupation and Access to
Safe Drinkable Water……………………………………………………………63
Table 4.7.3b: Chi-Square Tests –Occupation and Access to Safe Drinkable Water 64
 































LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Map of Niger State Showing Its Borders, Local Government Areas and     Minna Metropolis……………………………………………………..…26
Figure 2: Map of Minna Metropolis Showing Its Communities and     Areas…………………………28


































LIST OF ACRONYMS

UN- United Nations
SDG- Sustainable Development Goals
WHO- World Health Organizations
USAID- United States Agency for International Development
DFID- Department for International Development
FGN- Federal Government of Nigeria
MWR- Federal Ministry of Water Resources
RBDA- River Basin Development Authority
NGO’s- Non-Governmental Organizations
LGA- Local Government Area
GRA - Government Residential Area
SPSS - Statistical Package for Social Science
IRC- International Rescue Committeee
FOS- Federal Office of Statistics
SWAs- State Water Agencies
WA-WASH- West Africa Water Supply Sanitation and Hygiene
IWSC- International Water and Sanitation Centre
    RWSN- Rural Water Supply Network













ABSTRACT

Over the years, governments, intergovernmental bodies and civil societies have been working on many projects to promote accessibility and affordability to safe drinkable and useable water in Nigeria and around the world. Still, many people in Nigerian cities, like Minna rarely enjoy adequate water supply and little literature, if any exist on the states of water supply in Minna, Niger State. This study seeks to examine the nature of water supply in Minna, its sources, accessibility and affordability levels. Quantitative research design was applied in the study and purposive sampling was used in selecting (219) respondents that semi-structured questionnaires were administered on in some informal settlements in Minna. The data was analyzed using SPSS software. The study found that most respondents enjoyed clean, but not pure, safe and useable water, while many expressed that the extent of the cleanliness and purity of water is above average. It was also found that almost all respondents showed that the water in their areas is safe for washing, bathing and drinking, but a few respondents argued that the water is dirty, colorful, smelly. Findings also showed that majority sourced water from well and those that accessed tap-water usually get it from distribution line. It is recommended that the purity and cleanliness of water should be improved, whereas more sources of water should be made available, accessible and affordable. Water is life, as expressed in different parts of the world and Nigerians requires safe, drinkable and useable water for human development.

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APA

Muhammad Gbodoti, U (2019). State of water Supply in Minna metropolis. Afribary.com: Retrieved December 04, 2020, from https://afribary.com/works/state-of-water-supply-in-minna-metropolis

MLA 8th

Usman, Muhammad Gbodoti. "State of water Supply in Minna metropolis" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 19 Dec. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/state-of-water-supply-in-minna-metropolis . Accessed 04 Dec. 2020.

MLA7

Usman, Muhammad Gbodoti. "State of water Supply in Minna metropolis". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 19 Dec. 2019. Web. 04 Dec. 2020. < https://afribary.com/works/state-of-water-supply-in-minna-metropolis >.

Chicago

Usman, Muhammad Gbodoti. "State of water Supply in Minna metropolis" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed December 04, 2020. https://afribary.com/works/state-of-water-supply-in-minna-metropolis