Studies on Dietary Fermented Mixture of Cassava and Palm Kernel Cake on Carcass Characterisitcs of Broilers and Pigs

The MasterMind Project Aladi Nnanyere Okwunna 248 PAGES (50372 WORDS) Thesis
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ABSTRACT

Five experiments were carried out to determine the effect of replacing maize with solid state fermented mixture of cassava root pulp and palm kernel cake on performance, carcass and meat quality of broiler chicks and pigs. First, 3 inoculation techniques were evaluated for their efficacy in solid state fermentation of the mixture namely; direct inoculation with Aspergillus niger, batch inoculation with previously inoculated samples, and spontaneous inoculation. In study 2, sundried spontaneously fermented samples (FEMCARPP) were used to replace maize in broiler chicks diets, whereas in study 3, the performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of broiler finishers fed diets containing wet or sundried FEMCARPP were compared to the controls (maize based diet) and another diet containing a mixture of cassava root meal and palm kernel cake (CSM-PKC mix) as replacement for maize. In study 4, FEMCARPP was used to replace maize in diet of weaner pig whereas study 5 evaluated the performance, carcass and meat quality of pigs fed diets in which maize was replaced FEMCARPP and CSM- PKC mix. Results show that, all inoculation techniques were efficient in improving the physicochemical characteristics of the mixture for inclusion in poultry ration. Dustiness of cassava meals was completely removed, protein content increased significantly, while crude fibre levels reduced in treatments relative to the control. Broiler chicks fed sundried FERMCARPP had significantly (p<0.05) lower live weight gains, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and cost per kg weight gain than those fed the control diet. Carcass characteristics were similar (p>0.05) while meat quality of chicks fed diets containing FEMCARPP was better (p<0.05) than the control and CSM-PKC mix diets. Chicks fed wet FEMCARPP had lower live weight gains and feed intake (p<0.05). Their feed conversion ratio was similar (p>0.05) to the control but superior to chicks fed diets containing sundried FEMCARPP and CSM-PKC mix. Cost per kg weight gained was better among chicks fed FEMCARPP without sun drying. Pigs at both weaner (study 4) and grower-finisher (study 5) stages fed diets on FEMCARPP was high (p<0.05) in live weight, weight gain, lower feed intake, feed conversion ratio and lower cost per kg weight gained. No significant differences were found for carcass characteristics of pigs. Meat of pigs fed maize based diets was significantly (p<0.05) higher water holding capacity and cooking loss; but with lower tenderness score when compared to those fed FEMCARPP based diets. Both were tenderer than those fed CSM-PKC diet. It is therefore concluded that solid state fermentation of spontaneously inoculated mixture of cassava root pulp and palm kernel cake is an effective tool for improving the nutritive value of the mixture for use in poultry and pig diets. The product can be used without further drying to replace maize in poultry and swine diets without detrimental effects on production, health, and carcass and meat quality of broilers and pigs. Solid state fermentation of spontaneously inoculated mixture of cassava root pulp and palm kernel cake is therefore recommended for poultry and pig farmers for efficient productivities and profit.

Keywords: solid state fermentation, cassava meal, palm kernel cake, carcass characteristics, meat quality, broilers chicks, pigs.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page i Copyright ii Certification iii Dedication iv Acknowledgements v Abstract vi Table of Contents viii List of Tables xiii List of Figures / Charts xvii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  1. 1.1  Background information 1

  2. 1.2  Problem statement 4

  3. 1.3  Objectives 5

  4. 1.4  Justification 5

  5. 1.5  Scope of the work 6

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1
2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.5.1 2.1.5.1.1 2.1.5.1.2 2.1.5.1.3 2.1.5.1.4 2.1.5.2 2.1.5.3 2.2

Cassava 7 Origin and distribution of cassava 7 Nutrient composition of cassava 10 Cassava products in poultry diets 13 Cassava as swine feedstuff 17 Limitations to the use of cassava in livestock diets 18 Cyanogenic glucosides 18

Cyanide reduction in cassava 22 Boiling 25 Drying 25 Fermentation 26

Low protein contents of cassava products 29

Palatability problems Palm kernel cake

32 34

vi

  1. 2.2.1  Nutrient composition of palm kernel cake 34

  2. 2.2.2  Palm kernel cake as poultry feedstuff 39

  3. 2.2.3  Palm kernel cake as swine feedstuff 39

  4. 2.2.4  Limitations of palm kernel cake as livestock feedstuff 41

  5. 2.2.5  Improving the nutritive value of palm kernel cake 43

  1. 2.2.5.1  Enzymatic degradation of palm kernel cake 44

  2. 2.2.5.2  Microbial degradation / enrichment of palm kernel cake 46

2.3 Carcass composition and meat quality 49

  1. 2.3.1  Factors affecting carcass composition of broiler chickens 49

  2. 2.3.2  Meat quality of broiler chickens 52

  3. 2.3.3  Carcass composition and meat quality of pigs 54

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHOD

  1. 3.1  Location of the study 58

  2. 3.2  Broad description of the study 58

3.2 Study 1:
Physicochemical characteristics and fungal ecology of differently fermented mixture of cassava root pulp and palm kernel cake 59

  1. 3.2.1  Study site 59

  2. 3.2.2  Collection and processing of experimental materials 59

  1. 3.2.2.1  Procurement of cassava and processing into pulp 59

  2. 3.2.2.2  Palm kernel cake 59

  3. 3.2.2.3  Preparation of garri agar 60

  4. 3.2.2.4  Nutrient broth 60

  5. 3.2.2.5  Isolation of Aspergillus niger 61

  1. 3.2.3  Preliminary study 61

  2. 3.2.4  Experimental setup 62

  3. 3.2.5  Determination of physical characteristics 65

  1. 3.2.5.1  Final weight

  2. 3.2.5.2  Particle size distribution

  3. 3.2.5.3  Bulk density

  4. 3.2.5.4  Specific gravity

65 65 66 66

vii

3.2.5.5 Water holding capacity 66 3.2.6 Proximate analysis of test materials 67

  1. 3.2.6.1  Moisture content 68

  2. 3.2.6.2  Ash content 68

  3. 3.2.6.3  Crude protein 69

  4. 3.2.6.4  Ether extracts 70

  5. 3.2.6.5  Nitrogen free extracts 71

  6. 3.2.6.6  Calculation of metabolizable energy 71

  1. 3.2.7  Identification of fungal organisms 71

  2. 3.2.8  Experimental design and analysis 73

  3. 3.2.9  Selection of a fermentation technique 73

  4. 3.2.10  Scale up of the spontaneous fermentation technique 73

3.3 Study 2:
Performance of broilers fed diets containing sundried fermented mixture of cassava root pulp and palm kernel cake as replacement for maize 75

  1. 3.3.1  Feed raw materials and diets formulation 75

  2. 3.3.2  Experimental birds and design 75

  3. 3.3.3  Data collection 78

  1. 3.3.3.1  Growth performance data 78

  2. 3.3.3.2  Carcass and internal organ characteristics 78

  3. 3.3.3.3  Meat quality characteristics 79

  4. 3.3.3.4  Haematological analysis 80

  1. 3.3.3.4.1  Blood collection 80

  2. 3.3.3.4.2  Haematological assay 80

  3. 3.3.3.4.3  Serum biochemical assay 83

3.3.4 Statistical analysis 89

3.4 Study 3:
Effect of dietary inclusion of wet or dry fermented mixture of cassava root pulp and palm kernel cake on live weight gains, carcass and meat quality of broilers 90

  1. 3.4.1  Experimental site 90

  2. 3.4.2  Feed raw materials and diets formulation 90

  3. 3.4.3  Experimental birds and design 92

  4. 3.4.4  Data collection 92

  1. 3.4.4.1  Growth performance 92

  2. 3.4.4.2  Carcass and internal organs characteristics 93

  3. 3.4.4.3  Meat quality characteristics 93

  4. 3.4.4.4  Organoleptic quality assessment 93

3.4.5 Statistical analysis 94

3.5 Study 4:
Performance and haematology of weaner pigs fed fermented 
mixture of cassava root pulp and palm kernel cake 95

  1. 3.5.1  Experimental site 95

  2. 3.5.2  Experimental pigs and design 95

  3. 3.5.3  Feed raw materials and diets formulation 95

3.5.4. Data collection 96

  1. 3.5.4.1  Growth performance 96

  2. 3.5.4.2  Haematological assessment 98

3.5.5 Experimental design and data analysis 98

3.6 Study 5:
Live weight gain, carcass characteristics and meat quality of pigs fed fermented mixture of cassava root pulp and palm kernel cake as replacement for maize 99

  1. 3.6.1  Experimental animals and design 99

  2. 3.6.2  Experimental diets 99

  3. 3.6.3  Data collection 102

  1. 3.6.3.1  Growth performance 102

  2. 3.6.3.2  Carcass characteristics 102

  3. 3.6.3.3  Meat quality 102

  4. 3.6.3.4  Sensory evaluation 103

3.6.4 Experimental design and data analysis 103

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSION 4.1 Study 1

Physicochemical characteristics and fungal ecology of differently fermented mixture of cassava root pulp and palm kernel cake 104 4.1.1 Physical characteristics of fermented materials 104

  1. 4.1.1.1  Final weight 104

  2. 4.1.1.2  Particle size distribution 106

  3. 4.1.1.3  Bulk density, specific gravity and water holding capacity 106

4.1.2 Proximate composition 109

  1. 4.1.2.1  Effect on inoculation method on proximate composition 109

  2. 4.1.2.2  Effect of period of fermentation on proximate composition 112

    Interactions between inoculation method and period of

  3. 4.1.2.3  fermentation on proximate composition of fermented materials 114

4.1.3 Fungal counts after fermentation 120

4.2 Study 2
Performance of broilers fed diets containing sundried fermented mixture of cassava root pulp and palm kernel cake as replacement for maize 131

4.2.1 Performance parameters 131

  1. 4.2.1.1  Live weight 131

  2. 4.2.1.2  Body weight gain 131

  3. 4.2.1.3  Feed intake 133

  4. 4.2.1.4  Feed conversion ratio 133

  5. 4.2.1.5  Protein efficiency ratio 133

  6. 4.2.1.6  Feed cost per kg weight gain 134

  1. 4.2.2  Carcass characteristics 134

  2. 4.2.3  Meat quality 138

  3. 4.2.4  Haematology and biochemical indices 138

4.3 Study 3
Effect of dietary inclusion of wet or dry fermented mixture of cassava root pulp and palm kernel cake on live weight gains, 143 
carcass and meat quality of broilers

  1. 4.3.1  Performance of experimental birds 143

  2. 4.3.2  Carcass and internal organ characteristics 150

  3. 4.3.3  Meat quality characteristics 150

4.4 Study 4
Live weight gains and haematology of weaner pigs fed diets 
containing fermented mixture of cassava root pulp and palm kernel cake 153 4.4.1 Performance parameters 153

  1. 4.4.1.1  Live weight 153

  2. 4.4.1.2  Weight gain 153

  3. 4.4.1.3  Feed intake 158

  4. 4.4.1.4  Feed utilization 158

4.4.2 Haematology 161

4.5 Study 5
Live weight gain, carcass characteristics and meat quality of pigs fed fermented mixture of cassava root pulp and palm kernel cake as replacement for maize 163

4.5.1 Performance parameters 163

  1. 4.5.1.1  Live weight and weight gain 163

  2. 4.5.1.2  Feed intake and utilization 165

  1. 4.5.2  Carcass and internal organ characteristics 166

  2. 4.5.3  Meat quality characteristics 166

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  1. 5.1  Conclusion

  2. 5.2  Recommendations

    Contribution to knowledge

REFERENCES APPENDIX

 

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APA

The MasterMind, P (2021). Studies on Dietary Fermented Mixture of Cassava and Palm Kernel Cake on Carcass Characterisitcs of Broilers and Pigs. Afribary.com: Retrieved April 23, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/studies-on-dietary-fermented-mixture-of-cassava-and-palm-kernel-cake-on-carcass-characterisitcs-of-broilers-and-pigs

MLA 8th

Project, The MasterMind. "Studies on Dietary Fermented Mixture of Cassava and Palm Kernel Cake on Carcass Characterisitcs of Broilers and Pigs" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 22 Feb. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/studies-on-dietary-fermented-mixture-of-cassava-and-palm-kernel-cake-on-carcass-characterisitcs-of-broilers-and-pigs . Accessed 23 Apr. 2021.

MLA7

Project, The MasterMind. "Studies on Dietary Fermented Mixture of Cassava and Palm Kernel Cake on Carcass Characterisitcs of Broilers and Pigs". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 22 Feb. 2021. Web. 23 Apr. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/studies-on-dietary-fermented-mixture-of-cassava-and-palm-kernel-cake-on-carcass-characterisitcs-of-broilers-and-pigs >.

Chicago

Project, The MasterMind. "Studies on Dietary Fermented Mixture of Cassava and Palm Kernel Cake on Carcass Characterisitcs of Broilers and Pigs" Afribary.com (2021). Accessed April 23, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/studies-on-dietary-fermented-mixture-of-cassava-and-palm-kernel-cake-on-carcass-characterisitcs-of-broilers-and-pigs