Survey Report on the Meteorological and Oceanographic Services in Liberia

The Republic of Liberia is situated on the southwest corner of the West Coast of Africa between longitudes 7o 30' and 11o and 30' west, and latitude 4o 18 minutes 8o 30' north. It covers surface areas of about 111,370 km2 (approximately 43,506 square miles). The dry land extent is 96,160 square km or 37,570 square miles. Liberia is limited on the west by Sierra Leone, on the north by Guinea, on the east by the Ivory Coast, and on the south by the Atlantic Ocean. Total land boundaries extend to 1,585 kilometers (990 miles) towards Guinea 563 kilometers (352 miles), Ivory Coast, 716 (446 miles) and Sierra Leone, 306 kilometers (191 miles) respectively. 

Liberia, a country that is on the radar of the west of the Atlantic Ocean, and is also located in the equatorial and monsoon climates area of the west Atlantic Ocean that which is often affected by natural disasters such as mini storms, tidal waves and floods caused by tropical rainfalls, landslides and so on. Recently, climate change caused by global warming has posed a serious problem for Liberia as it is predicted to have significant negative impacts on the nation which is particularly vulnerable to a change in the natural environment. In addition, it is said that climate change has a potential to become the greatest threat to the sustainability of the very foundations of human survival. Thus, it is a significant global issue which developed and developing countries alike must deal with in mutually beneficial cooperation. In line with increasing global concerns on the intensification of disasters caused by climate change, the establishment of effective countermeasures against disasters such as severe storms, storm surges, and floods caused by tropical rainfalls, rising sea level, etc. has been an urgent task in Liberia as well as in other countries in the West Atlantic Ocean. In order for Liberia to contribute to the alleviation of natural disasters in the West Atlantic Ocean, the following are required and strongly desired:

  • An efficient meteorological and oceanographic  observation system; and,
  • An Exchange of meteorological and oceanographic observation data and information about tropical rainfall with neighboring countries in the west Atlantic Ocean on a timely basis.

 Nations along the West Atlantic Ocean like Liberia are in an extremely fragile situation because they have three negative aspects:

  • The topographic dimension of being generally susceptible to meteorological and oceanographic calamities,
  • The long distance from each continent, and the insufficiencies of meteorological and oceanographic observation/forecasting abilities and disaster prevention countermeasures.

 About 60% of tropical rainfalls of the world are generated in the West Atlantic Ocean around Liberia. Below is the tropical rainfalls occurrence average per year in Liberia in the West Atlantic Ocean. While the average from 1995 to 2008 was 2,159mm per year, it rose to 5,378mm per year from 2008 to 2020 indicating that tropical rainfalls occurrence almost doubled in thirty years. The number of tropical rainfalls which occurred in the area of the West Atlantic Ocean (Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea) for the past 20 years is more than half of them developed into intense tropical rainfalls. Once a constant tropical rainfall hits a country, the low attitude land in the nation is likely to be inundated and, as a result, the number of victims and the amount of economic losses can become enormous. In terms of human and economic losses, 1,644 deaths, 3,512 victims and 5.2 million US dollars (853 billion $LD) have been lost in 20 years. In Liberia capital Monrovia where the population is concentrated and economic activities are vigorous, extensive damage resulting from consistent tropical rainfalls is a determining factor in the significant set-back of social and economic development. A Climate Change Action Plan, 2006, Liberia” clearly articulates the importance of NASA’s role along with data collection and information materials organization for monitoring, assessment of vulnerability and risk, and development of capability/technology to deal with climate change. In addition,  “Liberia Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Programed of Action for the Sustainable Development of coastal countries Developing Stated, 2005,” the following important points are mentioned in order for the coastal developing countries to reduce the damages from natural calamities:

  • Strengthening of early warning capability against meteorological and oceanographic phenomena like consistent tropical rainfalls and coastal erosion and inundation;
  • Establishment of more effective disaster management measures;
  • Increase of public awareness about disaster reduction; and,
  • Reinforcement of inter-sectorial and international cooperation.

 These points are exactly in accord with the key objective of our survey. The existing meteorological radar system of Liberia under the protection of the Liberian Government (Ministry of Transport), which had played the most important role in monitoring tropical rainfall generated in the West Atlantic Ocean, completely stopped in 2005. This meteorological radar system was installed in 1996 with the assistance of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and had been active for over 9 years. However, it became difficult to procure spare parts from its manufacturer, and impossible to conduct or even renovate the radar system itself for a number of other reasons, namely:

The transmitted power is down, each circuit in the system is obsolete, and the radar tower building is aging located in Margibi county RIA. As a consequence, the meteorological radar system of the BBC is the only functioning radar system for monitoring tropical rainfalls in Liberia.

The fact that the radar system of Liberia is out of order results in the deterioration and/or insufficient ability to monitor/detect natural calamities and, consequently, makes it unable to conduct effective countermeasures towards disaster prevention and mitigation in the entire region. In essence, it is akin to losing one precious eye to monitor tropical rainfall. Due to lack of financial and technical capabilities, in 2018 a center was established by group of Liberian scientists called THE NATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL AND OCEANOGRAPHIC CENTER- LIBERIA (NOMOC-LIBERIA) mandated themselves to work on producing data that will covers the meteorological and oceanographic aspects of Liberia with the minimum tools and software they have. The have also mandated the Government of Liberia to procure and install the required equipment as well as to provide the relevant systems and facilities, to rehabilitate the damage meteorological service station. In waiting to this request, NAMOC-LIBERIA has decided to conduct a Survey for Climate Change Program for Liberia Meteorological Service (hereinafter referred to as the “Survey report of the meteorological and oceanographic services in Liberia”).

 The National Meteorological and Oceanographic Center-Liberia (hereinafter referred to as “NAMOC-LIBERIA”) carry on a Survey in January to December 2019 in order to capture the meteorological happenings in Liberia. 


Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1

Introduction .1-3


CHAPTER 2

Meteorological survey..3

Climate change analysis…..…..4-6


CHAPTER 3

Oceanography Survey .... 7

-Navigational system analysis... 8

Marine process8

- Water Quality.8-9

- Tides…9-11

- Current11-12

- Wave….13

- Ocean Circulation..13

- Marine system14

- Marine Ecosystem…..14-15


CHAPTER 4

Coastal Processes analysis..15-16

- Causes of Beach Erosion and inundation….16-17

- Coastal Ecosystem17-20


CHAPTER 5

Marine and Coastal Environment Characteristics…20-21

- Living Resource Survey ....21-23

Conclusion.…24

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APA

Natt Jr., J. (2021). Survey Report on the Meteorological and Oceanographic Services in Liberia. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/survey-report-namoc-2019-file

MLA 8th

Natt Jr., John Nyemah "Survey Report on the Meteorological and Oceanographic Services in Liberia" Afribary. Afribary, 01 Apr. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/survey-report-namoc-2019-file. Accessed 25 Jul. 2024.

MLA7

Natt Jr., John Nyemah . "Survey Report on the Meteorological and Oceanographic Services in Liberia". Afribary, Afribary, 01 Apr. 2021. Web. 25 Jul. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/survey-report-namoc-2019-file >.

Chicago

Natt Jr., John Nyemah . "Survey Report on the Meteorological and Oceanographic Services in Liberia" Afribary (2021). Accessed July 25, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/survey-report-namoc-2019-file