The African Woman's Right and Freedom of Expression: Case Study of Women in Acholi

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION ................................................................................................................................. i

APPROVAL ....................................................................................................................................... ii

DEDICATION ................................................................................................................................... iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .................................................................................................................. iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS ..................................................................................................................... v .

LIST OF ABREVATIONS ................................................................................................................ viii

ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................................................... ix

CHAPTER ONE ................................................................................................................................. 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND .................................................................................... 1

1.2 Statement of the Problem ............................................................................................................... 3

1.3 Definition of key terms .................................................................................................................. 4

1.3.1 Culture ........................................................................................................................................ 4

1.3.2 Existence .................................................................................................................................... 4

1.3 .3 Freedom ..................................................................................................................................... 4

1.3.4 Freedom of expression ................................................................................................................ 4

1.3.5 Human person ............................................................................................................................. 4

1.3 .6 Human rights .............................................................................................................................. 5

1.3.7 Ontology ..................................................................................................................................... 5

1.3 .8 Particularity and universality ....................................................................................................... 5

1.3.9 Vital force ................................................................................................................................... 5

1.4 Scope of the Study ......................................................................................................................... 5

1.5 Objectives of the Study .................................................................................................................. 5

1.5.1 General objective ........................................................................................................................ 5

1.5.2 Specific objectives ...................................................................................................................... 6

1.6 Hypotheses .................................................................................................................................... 6

I. 7 Review of Literature ...................................................................................................................... 6

1.9 Conceptual Framework ................................................................................................................ 17

1.10 Research Methodology Research design ..................................................................................... 18

1.11 Significance of the study ............................................................................................................ 20

CHAPTER TWO ............................................................................................................................... 21

2.0 THE CONCEPT OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION ............................ 21

v

2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 21

2.2 The Concept of Human Rights ..................................................................................................... 21

2.2.1 The Western understanding ofhuman tights .............................................................................. 21

2.2.2 Placide Tempels Ontology: A basis for the African conception ofrights .................................... 23

2.2.2.1 Placide Tempels existentialist epistemological analysis: A shift from "logocentrism" to ......... 23

2.2.2.2 Tempels notion of ontology .................................................................................................... 24

2.2.2.3 Bantu (African) ontology and human rights conception .......................................................... 27

2.3 Freedom of Expression ................................................................................................................ 33

2.3.1 The problem offreedom ............................................................................................................ 33

2.3.2 The question of freedom of expression ...................................................................................... 35

2.4 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................... 37

CHAPTER THREE ........................................................................................................................... 39

3.0 ONTOLOGICAL HIERARCHY AMONG THE ACHOL 1 .......................................................... 39

3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 39

3.2 The Ontological Hierarchy ........................................................................................................... 39

3.2.1 Rubanga (God) ......................................................................................................................... 39

3.2.3 Rwot (chief) .............................................................................................................................. 41

3.2.4 Ludito (elders) .......................................................................................................................... 41

3.2.5 Coo (men) ................................................................................................................................. 41

3.2.6 Mon (women) ........................................................................................................................... 42

3.2.7 Lutino (children) ....................................................................................................................... 42

3.2.8 Lee (animals), yadi (plants), jannni rna pe kwo (inanimate beings) ............................................ 42

3.3 The Interaction among the Beings in Acholi ................................................................................. 43

3.4 Ontologtcal Relationship between Acholi Mon (Women) and Coo (Men) .................................... 44

3.5 The Abuse of the Ontological Hierarchy ...................................................................................... 46

3.5.1 Acholi response to the abuse ..................................................................................................... 46

3.6 The Rationale of the Ontological Hierarchy ................................................................................. 47

3.7 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................... 53

CHAPTER FOUR ............................................................................................................................. 54

4.0 THE UNVERSALITY AND PARTICULARITY OF HUMAN RIGHTS: ................................... 54

A SYNTHESIS ................................................................................................................................. 54

4.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 54

vi

4.2 The Ethics of Human Rights ........................................................................................................ 54

4.3 The Freedom of Expression of the Woman ................................................................................... 56

4.3.1 The human person as a cultural being ........................................................................................ 59

4.3.2 The human person as a product of culture ................................................................................. 59

4.3.3. The human person as an existence ............................................................................................ 60

4.3.3.1 Human rights system integrati0n ............................................................................................ 60

4.4 The Acholi Experience ................................................................................................................ 63

4.4.1 The Universality of rights ......................................................................................................... 63

4.4.2 The particularity ofrights .......................................................................................................... 64

4.5 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................... 64

CHAPTER FIVE ............................................................................................................................... 66

5.0 GENERAL CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................ 66

5.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 66

5.2 The General Conclusion ............................................................................................................... 66

5.2.1 Women's rights and the principle of duality .............................................................................. 66

5.2.2 Women's rights and the environment ........................................................................................ 67

5.3 Recommendations ....................................................................................................................... 69

5.3.1 'Othering' and the need for tolerance ........................................................................................ 69

5.3.2 The need for existence oriented women's tights movements ...................................................... 69

5.3.3 Human persons in the incomplete, neither closed nor pre-determined, but potential ................... 70

BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................................. 71

APPENDIX 1 .................................................................................................................................... 75

INTERVIEW GUIDE ........................................................................................................................ 75

ABSTRACT The topic of study is the African woman's right and freedom of expression in Acholi in particular. The instruments of study were p1imarily the questionnaire and iuterviews. respectively. It should be remembered that the hypothesis advanced for this study were. 1. The traditional onmbered that the adumbrated by placide temples does not lead to violation of women's rights in Acholi. 2. Divergence from a westem ideal of women's rights in general and freedom of expression in particular implies a violation of an Acholi woman's 1ight and freedom of expression. In testing hypothesis 1 using product moment conelation coefficient, the result was 0.53, meaning that the effect is not significant as the hypothesis assumes .. this means hypothesis 1 was rejected. In testing hypothesis ii using the same method of data analysis, the result was 0.63 meaning that freedom of expression has effect on women, but the effect is not so significant.hzpothesis ii was also rejected. I can therefore, conclude that rights observation is the very foundation of the Acholi society, taken and approached holistically namely, the ontological fi·amework, the communal dimension, its conesponding duties anti the limits accordingly, rights here are not distinguishable as who should benefit or enjoy but an intrinsic and an inherent public commodity. The Acholi therefore take it upon themselves to preserve and sustain this beauty and in the bid to do so, punishments such as provocative laughter, rebuke, insult, whipping and sometimes heavy punishments like forceful divorce, ones granruies and houses bumt, are inflicted on the culprits in accordance with the gravity of the act. The researcher on this part provides subsequently the recommendation, which recommendation emphasizes the need for existential/oriented was of understanding human rights and the capacity of human rights activitists should also be boosted through training more.

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APA

Frontiers, E. & MARGRET, A (2022). The African Woman's Right and Freedom of Expression: Case Study of Women in Acholi. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/the-african-woman-s-right-and-freedom-of-expression-case-study-of-women-in-acholi

MLA 8th

Frontiers, Edu, and AKELLO MARGRET "The African Woman's Right and Freedom of Expression: Case Study of Women in Acholi" Afribary. Afribary, 24 Aug. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/the-african-woman-s-right-and-freedom-of-expression-case-study-of-women-in-acholi. Accessed 24 Sep. 2022.

MLA7

Frontiers, Edu, and AKELLO MARGRET . "The African Woman's Right and Freedom of Expression: Case Study of Women in Acholi". Afribary, Afribary, 24 Aug. 2022. Web. 24 Sep. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/the-african-woman-s-right-and-freedom-of-expression-case-study-of-women-in-acholi >.

Chicago

Frontiers, Edu and MARGRET, AKELLO . "The African Woman's Right and Freedom of Expression: Case Study of Women in Acholi" Afribary (2022). Accessed September 24, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/the-african-woman-s-right-and-freedom-of-expression-case-study-of-women-in-acholi