The Challenges of Equal Access to Justice System and The Protection of Juveniles Delinquent in Southern Sudan a Case Study of Juba, the Cap It Ai. of Southern Sudan

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

DEQARATION ...................................................................... , ........................................................... i

APPROVAL ......................................................................................................................................... ii

DEDICATION ................................................................................................................................... iii

ACK.NO"WLEDGMENT .................................................................................................................... iv

ABSTRACT ......................................................................................................................................... v

TABlE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................................... vii

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS .............................................................................................................. xi

LIST OF INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL ACRONYMS AND INSTRUMENTS: .................. xii

LAWREPORTS ............................................................................................................................... xiii

LIST OF NATIONAL STATUTES ................................................................................................... xiv

CASES ............................................................................................................................................... xv

CI-IAPT'ER I. ....................................................................................................................................... 1

1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 1

1.1 The Background of the Study. .................................................................................................. 1

1.3 ProblemStatement ...................................................................................................................... 4

1.4 Objectives of the Study ................................................................................................................ 4

Overall Objectives ............................................................................................................................... 4

Specific Objectives of the Study ............................................................................................................ 4

1.5 Research Questions ..................................................................................................................... 5

1.6 Scope of the Study ....................................................................................................................... 5

vii

1.7 Significance of the Study .............................................................................................................. 6

1.8 Literature Review ....................................................................................................................... 7

1.9 Research Methodology .............................................................................................................. 15

1. 9.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 15

1.9.2 Research design ...................................................................................................................... 15

1.9.3 Area of study ......................................................................................................................... 15

1.9.4 Data C:Ollection Procedure ...................................................................................................... 16

1.9.5 DataAnalysis ......................................................................................................................... 17

1.9.6 Limitations to the Study .......................................................................................................... 17

CffAP1ERII ..................................................................................................................................... 19

THE CONCEPT OF CRI:MINAL AND JUVENILE JUSTICE SYS1EM ........................................... 19

2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 19

2.2 The Development of the C:Oncept of Juvenile Justice System ........................................................ 20

2.3 The International and Regional Legal concepts of juvenile Justice System ...................................... 22

2.3.1 The International Instn101ents ................................................................................................ 22

2.3.2 Regional Instn101ents on Juvenile Justice System ...................................................................... 24

2.3.3 C:Onclusion ............................................................................................................................ 25

CffAP1ER III .................................................................................................................................... 2 7

JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM AGENOES ..................................................................................... 27

3.1 The Police .................................................................................................................................. 27

1 Procedure for Arrest of a juvenile offender by the police .............................................................. 28

u Investigation of juvenile bythe police .......................................................................................... 32

ill Detention of juvenile in the police station .................................................................................... 33

viii

3.2 The Directorate of Public Prosecutions and State Attorneys ......................................................... 37

Nature of prosecutions ............................................................................................................... 37

11 Investigation of a Gllld ............................................................................................................... 37

3.3 The Social Workers in the Juvenile Justice System ........................................................................ 39

The role play by the Social Workers ............................................................................................. 39

11 The Role before and During the Arrest of Juvenile Offenders ....................................................... 40

ill The Role of a Social Worker During the Investigations ................................................................. 41

IV The Role of a Social Worker After Court Sentence and During Imprisonment of a Juvenile ........... 42

v The Tripartite Role of the Social Worker in Juvenile Justice .......................................................... 43

3.4 Jurisdictions of Courts and Judicial Treatments of Juvenile Delinquent .......................................... 44

Jurisdiction in Matters of Juvenile Delinquent ............................................................................. .47

11 Conducting Juvenile Delinquent Cases ........................................................................................ 52

ill Sentencing of Juvenile Delinquent ............................................................................................... SS

1v The Right of Appeal in Juvenile Cases ............................................................................... ., ........ 59

3.5 Parents/Guardian of both Juvenile Offender and the Victim of Juvenile Offence .......................... 61

Parents/ Guardian ....................................................................................................................... 61

11 The Role of Parents/Guardians ................................................................................................... 61

ill Adopted Juvenile Offender ......................................................................................................... 63

3.6 The Reintegration of Juveniles into Community ........................................................................... 64

3.7 The Prison Services .................................................................................................................... 65

3.8 The Facilities Required for Juvenile Detainees .............................................................................. 68

3.9 The personnel ............................................................................................................................ 69

3.10 Reformatory Programmes ....................................................................................................... 71

ix

a-IAP1ER IV .................................................................................................................................... 73

11-!E FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS ................................................................................................... 73

4.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 73

4.1 The conflicts in the legislation on juvenile justice system .............................................................. 73

(a) The Legality of Corporal Punishment .......................................................................................... 73

(b) Legality of inhuman sentencing ................................................................................................... 7 4

(~ Death penalty ............................................................................................................................. 7 4

(li) Corporal punishment .................................................................................................................. 76

(ill) Life irnprisonment ...................................................................................................................... 77

(iv) Inhuman sentencing in practice ............................................................................................... 77

4.2 The incapacity and challenges within agencies of administration of juvenile justice ......................... 78

W The Southern Sudan Prison Service ............................................................................................. 78

(li) The Role of the Police Services in Juvenile Justice ........................................................................ 80

(ill) The Courts in Southern Sudan .................................................................................................... 82

(iv) The Public Prosecutions role in administration Juvenile Justice System ..................................... 84

(v) The Social Workers in the Administration of Juvenile Justice ........................................................ 87

a-IAP1ER V ..................................................................................................................................... 89

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS .............................................................................. 89

5.1 The Conclusions ........................................................................................................................ 89

5.2 The Recommendations ............................................................................................................... 90

BIBLIOGRAPHY .............................................................................................................................. 96

ABSTRACT Despite the continuity of the extensive international and regional theoretical literature written over the years shaping commendable treatments of juveniles in a number states, still juvenile justice system in Southern Sudan has not only been battling the violations of human rights as a result of the civil war but juvenile justice system faced the inadequacies of legal framework that was brutally uprooted. Given the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed in Kenya has ushered in a glimpse of relief to reconstruct and fill the legislative vacuum in general and juvenile related legislations in particular. Thus, the 2005 Interim Constitution of Southern Sudan has the child related provisions while the first ever Child Act, 2008 is premised exclusively on juvenile justice system. Therefore, the difficult task remaining is to be observed the implementation of these legislations that require concerted efforts for the re-orientation of the public attitudes in Southern Sudan towards realization, promotion and protection of the human and legal rights of the juveniles. The result of this research will be useful in its attempt to analyze the relevant legislations and the practices of the institutions charged with the administration of juvenile justice system and hence giving insights as to what needs to be done to improve the juvenile justice system in Southern Sudan. The analysis in this research embraces different fields that have crucial bearings in the juvenile justice system including customary practices, the recent National Child Legislations and the International and Regional Instnunents that Southern Sudan is a party to by virtue of ratification by the Republic of the Sudan. In regards to this research under chapter one of this study are mainly topics that include: the Background of the Studywhich considered the introductory part of the research paper, the literature review and the Research Methodology. Chapter Two of this research deals with an overall v introduction to the juvenile justice system and explores definitions of relevant terms, principles and concepts in juvenile justice system. The explains why this research will be useful not only to the stakeholders in the administration of juvenile justice system but also to the general society affected not only by the juvenile delinquency but also by the treatment of juvenile offenders. Chapter Three appraises the Legislations and the Practices in light of the International and Regional Instruments on the rights and treatment of juvenile offenders; Chapter Three discusses different stakeholders and their roles, procedures and powers in the administration of Juvenile Justice System in Southern Sudan. These stakeholders include the police, the courts, the prisons services, social workers as well as the parents and the wider society. Chapter Four is about finding and the analyses the Challenges facing access to justice system and the weaknesses in the administration of the Juvenile Justice System. Under Chapter Five, a general Conclusion is made in light of what has or has not been done considering the fact that Southern Sudan after the long protracted civil war has now embarked on acquiring the resources that it would need for the reconstructions and development of its institutional and infrastructural facilities that are necessary for justice system in general and juvenile justice in particular. It ends with the recommendations that are believed to be appropriate for the desired standard juvenile justice system

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APA

Frontiers, E. & FORTELO, O (2022). The Challenges of Equal Access to Justice System and The Protection of Juveniles Delinquent in Southern Sudan a Case Study of Juba, the Cap It Ai. of Southern Sudan. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/the-challenges-of-equal-access-to-justice-system-and-the-protection-of-juveniles-delinquent-in-southern-sudan-a-case-study-of-juba-the-cap-it-ai-of-southern-sudan

MLA 8th

Frontiers, Edu, and OKWERA FORTELO "The Challenges of Equal Access to Justice System and The Protection of Juveniles Delinquent in Southern Sudan a Case Study of Juba, the Cap It Ai. of Southern Sudan" Afribary. Afribary, 19 Aug. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/the-challenges-of-equal-access-to-justice-system-and-the-protection-of-juveniles-delinquent-in-southern-sudan-a-case-study-of-juba-the-cap-it-ai-of-southern-sudan. Accessed 02 Oct. 2022.

MLA7

Frontiers, Edu, and OKWERA FORTELO . "The Challenges of Equal Access to Justice System and The Protection of Juveniles Delinquent in Southern Sudan a Case Study of Juba, the Cap It Ai. of Southern Sudan". Afribary, Afribary, 19 Aug. 2022. Web. 02 Oct. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/the-challenges-of-equal-access-to-justice-system-and-the-protection-of-juveniles-delinquent-in-southern-sudan-a-case-study-of-juba-the-cap-it-ai-of-southern-sudan >.

Chicago

Frontiers, Edu and FORTELO, OKWERA . "The Challenges of Equal Access to Justice System and The Protection of Juveniles Delinquent in Southern Sudan a Case Study of Juba, the Cap It Ai. of Southern Sudan" Afribary (2022). Accessed October 02, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/the-challenges-of-equal-access-to-justice-system-and-the-protection-of-juveniles-delinquent-in-southern-sudan-a-case-study-of-juba-the-cap-it-ai-of-southern-sudan