THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM IN NIGERIA; PREVENTING EXTRA JUDICIAL KILLINGS BY LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES

AYILARA LUKMAN 99 PAGES (23640 WORDS) Project
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                                        ABSTRACT

It is vital to the correct understanding of the criminal law of Nigeria to ascertain at outset whence that law derives and where it is to be found. Essentially, Nigerian criminal law is derived from English common law. But the present relationship between those two systems of law has tended to become confused. Right from the creation of the earth by the Almighty there has been the existence of law. Law is a rule, a rule of behaviour, code of conduct, the rules usually made by the legislative arm of government which order the way persons, bodies and society should behave and also it can be term to be what officials do about dispute. Despite the existence of law in Nigeria and the various provisions of laws made by the legislature protecting human life, especially when the constitution of Nigeria which is seen as the grundnorms of her laws, the law enforcement agencies who have responsibilities of protecting the citizen are involve in the extra judicial killings of these citizens and this has become so rampant in Nigeria. And there have been various instances of extra judicial killings by law enforcement agencies in Nigeria. This essay is to critically examine the role of the governments on their citizen as it relate to killing of citizens without lawful justifications, and also state the challenges posed by these extra judicial killings. Furthermore, some suggestions will be proposed on ways of reducing and finally curtailing these anomaly as well as ways of ensuring that those found guilty of this crime are brought to book.

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------iDECLARATION--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------iiCERTIFICATION------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ABSTRACT-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------iv

TABLE OF CONTENT--------------------------------------------------------------------------vvii

DEDICATION---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ACKNOWLEDGMENT------------------------------------------------------------------------------ix

TABLE OF CASES------------------------------------------------------------------------------------x

TABLE OF STATUTES------------------------------------------------------------------------------xi

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS------------------------------------------------------------------------xii


CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION1.0.  INTRODUCTION-------------------------------------------------------------------------------1-2

1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY------------------------------------------------------------2-3

1.2. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM------------------------------------------------------------------3-4

1.3. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY------------------------------------------------------------4-5

1.4. STRUCTURE OF STUDY-------------------------------------------------------------------------5

1.5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY------------------------------------------------------------------5

1.6. LITERATURE REVIEW------------------------------------------------------------------------5-9


CHAPTER TWO

THE   GENERAL   OVERVIEW   OF   NIGERIAN   CRIMINAL   JUSTICESYSTEM2.0. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM -------10-14

2.1. DEFINITIONS OF LAW BY VARIOUS JURISTS--------------------------------------14-17

2.2. MEANING OF CRIME AND ELEMENT VARIOUS CRIMES---------------------- 17-19

2.4. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CRIME AND TORTS-------------------------------------19-24

2.5. COMPONENTS OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM ---------------------------------24- 37


CHAPTER THREE

THE   ROLE   OF   LAW   ENFORCEMENT   AGENCIES   IN   NIGERIAN   CRIMINALJUSTICE SYSTEM

3.0 THE VAROUS LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES IN NIGERIA-------------------38-40

3.1  THE   LEGAL   STATUS   OF   LAW  ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES  OTHER   THAN   THENIGERIAN POLICE -------------------------------------------------------------------------------40-44

3.2. FUNCTIONS OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES--------------------------------44-51

3.3. POWER TO DETAIN SUSPECTS----------------------------------------------------------51-54

3.4. ARREST AND SEARCHES -----------------------------------------------------------------54-57

3.5. POWER TO PROSECUTE-------------------------------------------------------------------57-58

3.5. 1. POSSESION/ USE OF FIREARMS -----------------------------------------------------58-60

3.6. REASONABLE USE OF FORCE-----------------------------------------------------------60-61

3.6.1. LEGALITY OF EVIDENCE OBTAINED FROM A SUSPECTS----------------------61


CHAPTER FOUR

EXTRA   JUDICIAL   KILLLINGS   OR   ACTIVITIES   BY   LAWENFORCEMENTS AGENCIES IN NIGERIA

4.1. NOTABLE INSTANCES OF EXTRA JUDICIAL KILLINGS IN NIGERIA……61-65

4.2. REASONS FOR EXTRA JUDICIAL KILLINGS……………………………….….65-69

4.3. THE LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR COMBATING EXTRA JUDICIAL KILLINGS…………………………………………………………………..69-74

4.4.  JUDICIAL PRONOUNCEMENTS   AND  ATTITUDES  OF  THE COURTS  TOWARDS EXTRA JUDICIAL KILLINGS…………………………………………………….……78-79

4.6. THE INTERNATIONAL LAWS AGAINST EXTRA JUDICIAL KILLINGS…….79-80



CHAPTER FIVE

5.0. CHALLENGES……………………............................................................…….81-82

5.1. RECOMMENDATIONS ………………………………………………………….82-84

5.2. CONCLUSION…………………………......................…………………………..84-85

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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APA

AYILARA, L (2019). THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM IN NIGERIA; PREVENTING EXTRA JUDICIAL KILLINGS BY LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES. Afribary.com: Retrieved November 21, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/the-criminal-justice-system-in-nigeria-preventing-extra-judicial-killings-by-law-enforcement-agencies

MLA 8th

LUKMAN, AYILARA. "THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM IN NIGERIA; PREVENTING EXTRA JUDICIAL KILLINGS BY LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 29 Aug. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/the-criminal-justice-system-in-nigeria-preventing-extra-judicial-killings-by-law-enforcement-agencies . Accessed 21 Nov. 2019.

MLA7

LUKMAN, AYILARA. "THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM IN NIGERIA; PREVENTING EXTRA JUDICIAL KILLINGS BY LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 29 Aug. 2019. Web. 21 Nov. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/the-criminal-justice-system-in-nigeria-preventing-extra-judicial-killings-by-law-enforcement-agencies >.

Chicago

LUKMAN, AYILARA. "THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM IN NIGERIA; PREVENTING EXTRA JUDICIAL KILLINGS BY LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed November 21, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/the-criminal-justice-system-in-nigeria-preventing-extra-judicial-killings-by-law-enforcement-agencies