In medicine, an abortion is the premature exit of the products of conception (the fetus, fetal membranes, and placenta) from the uterus. It is the loss of a pregnancy and does not refer to why that pregnancy was lost. It is the expulsion from the uterus of the products of conception before the fetus is viable. An estimated 44 million abortions are performed globally each year, with slightly under half of those performed unsafely (Sedgh et al., 2012). For most women, the decision to end a pregnancy (a very early pregnancy) is a complex and deliberative one. The reasons women give for ending a pregnancy underscore their understanding of the serious
consequences of unplanned childbearing for themselves and their families. A pregnancy can be intentionally aborted in several ways. The manner selected often depends upon the gestational age of the embryo or fetus, which increases in size as the pregnancy progresses (Stubblefield, 2002; Bartlett et al., 2004).
Effects of abortion could be either Physical or Psychological. The physical effects could be Elevated Risk of Death, Cervical, Ovarian, and Liver Cancer, Uterine Perforation, Cervical Lacerations, Placenta Previa, Subsequent Pre-Term Deliveries and Other Complications of Labor, Handicapped Newborns in Later Pregnancies, Ectopic Pregnancy, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), Endometritis and some complications which include infection, bleeding, fever, second degree burns, chronic abdominal pain, vomiting, gastro-intestinal disturbances, and Rh sensitization. Researchers have identified a large number of statistically significant risk factors that identify which women are at greatest risk of experiencing psychological effect or reactions to abortion. Women who have had abortions are significantly more likely than others to subsequently require admission to a psychiatric hospital.
The psychological effects could be Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts, Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Eating Disorders, Sexual Dysfunction, Child Neglect or Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Increased Smoking with Correspondent Negative Health Effects, Divorce and Chronic Relationship Problems, Repeat Abortions Research has indicated that age factors may be significantly related to psychological outcomes of abortion. For example, younger and unmarried women without children were more likely to experience negative outcomes than those who were older and who had already given birth
(Adler et al., 1992). There is a general consensus that abortion generally does not lead to negative psychological outcomes for women. However, in a minority of cases (some studies suggest about 20%), it does. Therefore both pre- and post- abortion counseling are recommended. In cases of spontaneous or habitual abortion, patient care is directed toward emotional support of the patient and acceptance of her feelings of bitterness, grief, guilt, relief, and other emotions associated with the loss of the fetus. The patient should be able to express her feelings in an open, nonjudgmental, and nonthreatening environment.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
1.1 Justification of the Study
1.2 Main Objective of the Study
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 History of Abortion
Table 1 9
2.2 Reasons for Abortion
2.3 Types of Abortion
2.3.3 Forms of abortion
2.4 Effects of Abortion
2.4.1 Physical Dangers Associated With Abortion
2.4.2 Psychological Risks Associated With Abortion