The Effect of Admixtures on Properties of Co`Ncrete: Case Studies of Sugar, Cow Bone Ash, Groudnut Shell Ash, and Lime Stone Powder

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ABSTRACT

          The project titled “The effect of admixtures on properties of concrete: case study of sugar, cow bone ash, groundnut shell ash, and lime stone powder” was carried out with the aim of knowing the effect the of the various types of admixtures used on the properties of concrete, in term of the workability of concrete, durability of concrete and the concrete strength. The material used are cow bone ash, groundnut shell ash, sugar and lime stone powder. The cow bone was sourced along Sobi road, Akerebiata area, Ilorin East local government area and the groundnut shell was sourced from Oja-Oba, Ilorin west local government. The cow bone was sun –dried after careful separation from flesh, tissues and fats, the ash was carried out by incinerating the bone at a temperature of 900C in a furnace. Also the groundnut shell ash was obtained by burning groundnut shell on an iron sheet in the open air under normal temperature while sugar and lime stone powder were bought from market (chemical store) along Taiwo road, Ilorin Kwara state. The method adopted was; batching of concrete materials, mixing of concrete materials, production of cubes, curing of cubes (for 14days and 28days) while the test carried out during and after the concrete cubes are produced or casted are; sieve analysis test, slump test and compressive strength test. From the sieve analysis test carried out on both fine and coarse aggregates, it was discovered that the coefficient of uniformity (Cu) obtained are less than 4, hence they are both “well-graded” aggregates. The slump test shows that there is increase in the slump value from sugar-concrete, GSA-concrete, CBA-concrete and LP-concrete, likewise the compressive strength test increases from sugar-concrete, GSA-concrete, CBA-concrete and LP-concrete. Based on the result of this investigation, the conclusion I made was that admixtures affect properties of concrete like its slump value, density, compressive strength, etc  and that admixtures generally decreases the slump value of concrete which in turns decrease the workability of the concrete.I there by recommend that further research should be carried out using 20%-50% of LP, CBA and GSA as admixture at an interval of 10% for the same experiment. Also the experiment should be carried out using some other mix ratio like 1:3:6, 1:4:8 and soon

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                              i

Declaration                                                                                            ii

Certification                                                                                          iii

Dedication                                                                                             iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                 v

Abstract                                                                                                 vi

Table of Contents                                                                                  vii

List of Tables                                                                                          x

List of Figures                                                                                       xi

List of Plates                                                                                          xii

CHAPTER ONE                                                                                   

1.0   Introduction                                                                                       1

1.1      Statement of the Problem                                                                  2

1.2      Aims and Objectives of the Study                                                     3

1.3      Justification of the Study                                                                  3

1.4      Scope of the Study                                                                            4

CHAPTER TWO

2.0   literature Review                                                                                 5

2.1      Concrete in Practice                                                                           6

2.2      Types of Admixtures                                                                          9

2.3       Selected Agent                                                                                   12

2.4       Material for concrete                                                                           16

2.4.1    Aggregates                                                                                             16

2.4.2    Cement                                                                                        18

2.4.2.1   Physical Properties of Cement                                                           19

2.4.3       Water                                                                                         21

2.4.3.1   Quality of Water                                                                                 22

2.4.3.2    Properties of Water                                                                            22

2.4.4  Curing                                                                                           22

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0   Project Methodology                                                                            24

3.1      Procurement of Material                                                                   25

3.2       Preparation of Material                                                                    26

3.3       Material Used                                                                                  27

3.4       Batching of concrete                                                                        28

3.5       Mixing of Concrete                                                                          32

3.6      Tests                                                                                                 33

3.6.1 Sieve Analysis Test                                                                         33

3.6.2 Slump Test                                                                                      34

3.7      Production of Cubes                                                                         38

3.8       Curing of Cubes                                                                               38

3.9       Compressive Strength Test on Concrete Cubes                                39

3.9.1  Procedure for Compressive Strength Test                                       41

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0   Results Analysis                                                                                   42

4.1 Sieve Analysis Test Result                                                                         42

4.2 Slump Test Result                                                                                      46

4.3 Discussion on the Result                                                                            66

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Conclusion                                                                                         69

5.1      Recommendation                                                                             70

        Reference                                                                                          71

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APA

Frontiers, E. & SODIQ, A (2021). The Effect of Admixtures on Properties of Co`Ncrete: Case Studies of Sugar, Cow Bone Ash, Groudnut Shell Ash, and Lime Stone Powder. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/the-effect-of-admixtures-on-properties-of-co-ncrete-case-studies-of-sugar-cow-bone-ash-groudnut-shell-ash-and-lime-stone-powder

MLA 8th

Frontiers, Edu, and ABASS SODIQ "The Effect of Admixtures on Properties of Co`Ncrete: Case Studies of Sugar, Cow Bone Ash, Groudnut Shell Ash, and Lime Stone Powder" Afribary. Afribary, 17 Dec. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/the-effect-of-admixtures-on-properties-of-co-ncrete-case-studies-of-sugar-cow-bone-ash-groudnut-shell-ash-and-lime-stone-powder. Accessed 24 Jan. 2022.

MLA7

Frontiers, Edu, and ABASS SODIQ . "The Effect of Admixtures on Properties of Co`Ncrete: Case Studies of Sugar, Cow Bone Ash, Groudnut Shell Ash, and Lime Stone Powder". Afribary, Afribary, 17 Dec. 2021. Web. 24 Jan. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/the-effect-of-admixtures-on-properties-of-co-ncrete-case-studies-of-sugar-cow-bone-ash-groudnut-shell-ash-and-lime-stone-powder >.

Chicago

Frontiers, Edu and SODIQ, ABASS . "The Effect of Admixtures on Properties of Co`Ncrete: Case Studies of Sugar, Cow Bone Ash, Groudnut Shell Ash, and Lime Stone Powder" Afribary (2021). Accessed January 24, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/the-effect-of-admixtures-on-properties-of-co-ncrete-case-studies-of-sugar-cow-bone-ash-groudnut-shell-ash-and-lime-stone-powder