The Effectiveness Of The Somap Model To Sustain Rural Water Supply In Zambia - A Case Of Chongwe District

Africana Public Library Javan Nkhosi 177 PAGES (52152 WORDS) Dissertation
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ABSTRACT

This study was to explore the effectiveness of the strategy adopted by the Government of Republic of Zambia to sustain rural water sources of boreholes fitted with hand pumps, using a case of Chongwe District. The Government of the Republic of Zambia adopted a strategy to reduce the rate of non-functional hand pumps for sustaining rural water supply under the National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programme (NRWSSP). Under the NRWSSP, the Sustainable Operation and Maintenance Project (SOMAP) was piloted as a model for sustaining rural water supply. At the end of the pilot project, the results showed a reduction in the non-functional rate and the down time of hand pumps in the project area.

The main theory for the study adopted is Expanded Community-based Management Model (Mandara 2013), based on community based management model (Harvey and Reed 2004). Convenient sampling technique was used to sample 47 water points at villages, schools and rural health centres for the study. The data collection tool used was a semi-structured questionnaire, administered at water points. The data was analysed for frequencies using the IBM statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 23.

The key findings of the study were that the communities do not regularly contribute towards operation and maintenance of hand pumps. The spare parts outlet does not have spare parts available all the time. There are no sub-district structures under the District Council to monitor rural water supply in the communities. Some communities are experiencing problems with inappropriate hand pumps installed. Common problems were difficult to pump hand pumps in hilly terrains due to low water level in the boreholes and rusty water resulting from corroded galvanised iron pipes used. Most communities do not practice preventive maintenance such as greasing of the chains on the hand pumps.

In light of these findings, the conclusion is that the SOMAP model is not effective to sustain rural water supply in Chongwe. Recommendations have been set in three categories: short term, medium term and long term. The short-term recommendations include: to increase staff in the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Unit (RWSSU), to reorganise the RWSSU to be responsive to make rural water supply to be sustainable; to provide additional resources to increase the visibility RWS in the rural communities. Reorganise the operation of the hand pump spares shop to be more responsive to the market forces.

Key words: Community-Based Management, Downtime, Effectiveness, Rural Water Supply, Safe Water, Supply Chain, Sustainability, Model and; Operation and Maintenance


TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION .....................ii 

DEDICATION iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ... iv 

LIST OF TABLES...................x 

LIST OF FIGURES................xi 

LIST OF PICTURES ...........xiii 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS............xiv 

LIST OF DEFINITIONS OF TERMS ......xvii 

ABSTRACT ..xix CHAPTER ONE......................1

Introduction and Background  1 1.1 Introduction ............. 1 

1.2. Background to the Study.................4

1.2.1 Model to Sustain Rural Water Supply...................4

1.2.2 Organisation Structure of the SOMAP Model.5

1.2.3 Economic Benefit of the SOMAP Model on the Rural Communities.............6

1.2.4 Regulation of Rural Water Supply ..................7

1.2.5 Rural Water Supply in the Millennium Development Goals...8

1.2.6 Rural Water Supply Projects .12

1.3 Statement of the Problem..............14 

1.4. The Research Objectives and Research Questions ....................... 14 

1.4.1 Main Objective ......................15 

1.4.2 Specific Objectives ................ 15 

1.4.3 General Research Question....15 

1.4.4 Research Questions................15

1.5 The Scope of the Study ................. 16

1.6 The Purpose of the Study .............. 17

1.7 The Significance of the Study.......18

1.8 Delimitation of the Study..............19

1.9 Limitation of the Study .................19

1.10 The Organization of the rest of the report.............20


CHAPTER TWO...................21

Literature Review ................21

2.1 Introduction ........... 21

2.2 Definition of sustainability............21

2.3 Examples with viable sustainable evidence .......... 23

2.4 Historical Development of the SOMAP ...............27

2.5 Rationale of the SOMAP model to sustain rural water supply ..... 29

2.6 Communities’ cost contributions towards maintenance of hand pumps...............31

2.7 Sustainable Supply Chain of Hand Pumps ...........35

2.8 Monitoring and Management Mechanism ............ 40

2.9 Adopted Standard Hand Pump Type ....................45

2.10 SOMAP Model Capacity Building ....................... 49

2.11 Conclusion ............ 56


CHAPTER THREE ..............58

Theoretical and Conceptual Framework......58

3.0 Introduction ........... 58

3.1 Theoretical Framework ................. 58

3.1.1 Community-based Management Model Theory..59

3.2 WaterAid Conceptual Framework 62

3.3 SOMAP Model Conceptual Framework...............63

3.4 Conclusion ............ 66


CHAPTER FOUR ................. 67

Research Methodology ........ 67

4.0 Introduction ........... 67

4.1 Research Approach ....................... 67

4.2 Research Design....68

4.2.1 Philosophical Assumptions of Quantitative Research.................68

4.2.2 Quantitative Research Strategy......................69

4.2.3 Data Collection Procedures ...69

4.2.4 Population and Sample .......... 69

4.2.5 Sampling Frame ..................... 69

4.3 Location of Study..69

4.4 Data Collection, Tools and Procedure ..................70

4.4.1 Questionnaires .......................71

4.4.2 Interviews ......72

4.4.3 Document Reviews................73 

4.5 Study Population ... 73 

4.5.1 Sampling Techniques.............74

4.6 Calculation of Sample Size...........74

4.7 Data Analysis, Tool and Techniques ....................75

4.7 Validity and Reliability Test .........75 

4.9 Ethical Considerations ..................76 

4.9 Conclusion ............ 76 


CHAPTER FIVE...................78 

Data Analysis, Results and Discussion........78

5.0 Introduction ........... 78

5.1 Data Analysis ........ 78

5.1.1 Background to research area..78

5.1.2 Status of the community hand pumps surveyed .................... 83

5.1.2.1 Community capital cost contributions .......84

5.1.2.2 Repair works of the hand pumps................85

5.1.2.3 Complete breakdown of hand pump before repair.............86

5.1.2.4 Hand pump Functionality...87

5.1.2.5 Application of Grease on the hand pumps . 88

5.1.2.6 Water Availability and Usage....................89

5.1.2.7 Alternative sources of water supply in communities ......... 90

5.1.2.8 Water Quality from Hand pump ................91

5.1.3 Communities’ contributions towards operation and maintenance.................93

5.1.4 Sustainable spare parts supply chain .............96

5.1.5 Monitoring and management mechanism......97

5.1.5.1 V-WASHE Committee Membership .........98

5.1.5.2 Area Pump Minders within vicinity of villages ................. 99

5.1.6 Adopted Standard Hand Pump ....................102

5.1.7 Capacity Building ................ 105

5.1.7.1 V- WASHE Trainings......107 5.2 Results ................. 109 5.2.1 SOMAP Hand Pump Spares Shop...............109

5.2.1.1 Operation of SOMAP hand pump spare part shop ..........110

5.2.1.2 Spare parts prices ............. 111

5.2.1.3 Spare parts shop stock......111

5.2.1.4 Replenishment of spare stock ..................111 5.2.2 Area Pump Minders.............112

5.2.2.1 APM Operation Activities .......................112

5.2.2.2 Common hand pump problems................112

5.2.2.3 Future APM training topics......................113

5.2.2.4 APM Monitoring and Management ......... 113

5.2.3 District Level SOMAP Activities................113

5.2.4 Community cost contributions.....................113

5.2.5 Supply chain of spare parts..114

5.2.6 Monitoring and management mechanisms .. 114

5.2.7 Adopted standardised hand pump type in Chongwe District ......................115

5.2.8 Capacity building in District115

5.3 Discussion ........... 115 5.3.1 Communities’ cost contributions towards maintenance of hand pumps ..... 115 

5.3.1.1One hundred percent cost for operation and maintenance...116

5.3.1.2 Contribute K1, 500.00 toward capital cost ......................116

5.3.1.3 Local Authority rehabilitate works that cost more than K500.00............117

5.3.2 Sustainability of the supply chain of spare parts of hand pumps. ...............117

5.3.2.1 Spare parts available at outlets at all times. ..................... 117

5.3.2.2 Spare parts are affordable. .......................118

5.3.2.3 Appropriate sustainable supply chain set up....................118

5.3.2.4 Provide toolkit and established toolkit management mechanism ............ 119

5.3.3 Monitoring and management mechanism....120

5.3.3.1 Management of hand pumps at Community level. ..........120

5.3.3.2 Devolved approach to Rural Water Supply .....................121

5.3.3.3 Involvement of other stakeholders required.....................122

5.3.3.4 Striking gender balance essential.............123

5.3.4 Adopted standard of hand pump type..........124

5.3.4.1 Hand pump satisfy hydro-geological conditions .............124

5.3.4.2 Hand pump for extra deep borehole conditions ............... 124

5.3.4.3 Hand pump for corrosive borehole conditions.................125

5.3.4.4 Ghana Modified India Mark II hand pump......................126

5.3.4.5 Affordable capital and recurrent costs considered...........126

5.3.4.5 Durability of facility considered. ............. 127

5.3.4.6 Standardisation vis-à-vis research and development developed..............127

5.3.5 Capacity building.................128

5.3.5.1 Community awareness campaigns and public participation. ................... 128

5.3.5.2 Management, financial and technical skills developed....129

5.4 Conclusion ..........130


CHAPTER SIX....................133

Conclusion and Recommendations............133

6.1 Introduction ......... 133

6.2 Conclusion ..........133

6.2.1 Cost Sharing by Communities.....................134

6.2.2 Sustainable spare part supply chain.............134

6.2.3 Monitoring and management mechanism....134

6.2.4 Adopted standardised hand pump................135

6.2.5 Capacity building ................. 135

6.3 Recommendations ....................... 136

6.3.1 Short-term recommendations.......................137

6.3.2 Medium-term recommendations..................137

6.3.3 Long-term recommendations.......................138

6.4 Further Research . 138

REFERENCES .................... 140 

APPENDICES .....................147

Appendix 1 Screen shots of data analysis using SPSS  147

Shot 1. Showing IBM SPSS Statistics Data Editor............147

Shot 2. Showing IBM SPSS Statistics Viewer output generated..............147

Appendix 2 List of Water Points and Communities Visited ...............148

Appendix 3 University of Lusaka - Student Introductory Letter ......... 150

Appendix 4 Receipt for Conducting Research in Chongwe ................ 151

Appendix 5 Community Questionnaire ....................... 152

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APA

Africana, P (2021). The Effectiveness Of The Somap Model To Sustain Rural Water Supply In Zambia - A Case Of Chongwe District. Afribary.com: Retrieved April 17, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/the-effectiveness-of-the-somap-model-to-sustain-rural-water-supply-in-zambia-a-case-of-chongwe-district

MLA 8th

Public Library, Africana. "The Effectiveness Of The Somap Model To Sustain Rural Water Supply In Zambia - A Case Of Chongwe District" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 08 Apr. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/the-effectiveness-of-the-somap-model-to-sustain-rural-water-supply-in-zambia-a-case-of-chongwe-district . Accessed 17 Apr. 2021.

MLA7

Public Library, Africana. "The Effectiveness Of The Somap Model To Sustain Rural Water Supply In Zambia - A Case Of Chongwe District". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 08 Apr. 2021. Web. 17 Apr. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/the-effectiveness-of-the-somap-model-to-sustain-rural-water-supply-in-zambia-a-case-of-chongwe-district >.

Chicago

Public Library, Africana. "The Effectiveness Of The Somap Model To Sustain Rural Water Supply In Zambia - A Case Of Chongwe District" Afribary.com (2021). Accessed April 17, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/the-effectiveness-of-the-somap-model-to-sustain-rural-water-supply-in-zambia-a-case-of-chongwe-district