THE EFFECTS OF PASSIVE SOLAR CONTROL ON HUMAN THERMAL COMFORT

ABSTRACT
Buildings are supposed to shield their occupant from the solar radiation which especially in the hot dry climate of Bauchi pose problems of high indoor temperatures, thermal and visual discomfort among others. But to what extent does the Architectural solar control measures viz; shading, building orientation with respect to cardinal direction, and design or planning affect cooling? The current study investigates effect of exploiting these strategies on passive solar control in institutional buildings in ATBU with the aim of enhancing passive solar control on human thermal comfort. The study is a Case Study research of the main university library building in ATBU Bauchi Yelwa campus, from which physical observation were made; oriented to N/S and E/W, with three courtyards within the building, without vegetation in the courtyards. The passive solar control strategies and techniques used in the building to achieve human thermal comfort were investigated. The results showed that the building has achieved most of the strategies required in controlling heat gain. Hence, the study recommended for retrofitting by insulating external wall and roof, increase sizes of window openings, vegetating the courtyards, landscaping the immediate environment etc.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page……………………………………………………………………………………………….i
Declaration…………………………………………………………………………………………….ii
Certification………………………………………………………………………………………….iii
Dedication…………………………………………………………………………………………….iv
Acknowledgement.………………………………………………………………………………..v
Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………………..vi
Table of contents…………………………………………………………………………………vii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………...1
1.1 Background of the study…………………………………………………………………2
1.2 Statement of the problem………………………………………………………………4
1.3 Aim and Objectives…………………………………………………………………………5
1.4 Research Questions………………………………………….……………………………..6
1.5 Significance Of the Study………………………………….……………………………..6
1.6 Operational Definition Of Terms…………………….……………………………….7

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction………………….……………………………………………………………….10
2.1 passive cooling……………………………………..………………………………………..10
2.1.1 Strategies Of Passive Cooling…………………………………..………………….11
2.2 Thermal Comfort………………………………..………………………………………….15
2.2.1 Sources of Heat That Causes Discomfort In The Enclosed Environment ……………16
2.2.2 Thermal Comfort In Building Design……………………………………………16
2.3 Factors Influencing Thermal Comfort In Buildings……………..…………..17
2.3.1 Climatic Factors………………………………………..………………………………….18
2.3.2 Human Factors………………………………………………..………………………….18
2.4 Thermal Performance and Choice Of Building Materials In Hot Dry Zone………………..19
2.5 Solar Control……………………………………………………………………..…………..22
2.5.1 Solar Control And Heat Protection…………………………………..………….22
2.5.2 Thermal Properties Of Building Elements……………………………..…….22
2.5.3 Building Orientation As A Tool Of Solar Control……………………..……23
2.5.4  Building Shape And Volume As An Element Of Solar Control………27
2.5.5 Shading As A Strategy Of Solar Control…………………………..……………29
2.6 Design For Hot-Arid Zones……………………………………………………..………44
2.6.1 Design For Hot-Humid Zones……………………………………………………….46
2.7 Thermal Mass…………………………………………………………………………………48
2.7.1 Properties Of Thermal Mass………………………………………………………..48
2.8 Heat Dissipation……………………………………………………………..……………..52
2.8.1 Design Problem And Challenges………………………………………………....53
2.8.2 Design Guiding Principles…………………………………………………………….54
2.9  Theories Of The Effects Of Passive Solar Control On Energy Use In Buildings…..……….56


CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Research Methodology………………………………………………………………..59
3.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………59
3.2 Sources Of Data……………………………………………………………………………..59
3.2.1 Primary Data……………………………………………………………………………….60
3.2.2 Secondary Data..………………………………………………………………………….61
3.3 Data Analysis………………………………………………………………………………….61
3.4 Study Area……………………………………………………………………………………..61
3.4.1 Background of The Study Area…………………………………………………….61
3.4.2 Existing Development………………………………………………………………….63
3.4.3 Case Study………………………………………………………………………………….63
3.5 Climate And Geography…………………………………………………………………65
3.5.1 Local Climatic Data………………………………………………………………………65
3.5.2 Wind……………………………………………………………………………………………66
3.5.3 Rainfall………………………………………………………………………………………..66
3.5.4 Temperature And Humidity………………………………………………………..67
3.5.5 Evaporation…………………………………………………………………………………68
3.6 Geography…………………………………………………………………………………….68
3.6.1 Geology………………………………………………………………………………………69
3.6.2 Vegetation………………………………………………………………………………….69


CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………..70
4.1 Presentation And Analysis Of Data From The Research Questions ……………………....70
4.1.1 The Extent To Which Orientation Of The Building Affects Air Admissibility With Respect To The Cardinal Directions ……………………70
4.1.2 The Extent To Which Heat Is Gained Into The Building With Respect To The Orientation Of The Building ……………………………………………71
4.1.3 The Effect Vegetation Has On The Cooling Effect Of The Courtyards And The Building’s Interior ………………………..71
4.1.4 The Extent To Which Solar Control Strategies Reduces Heat Gain Into The Interior Space ……………………………………72
4.2 Presentation Of Results From The Physical Observations …………….72
4.2.1 Total Area Of The Building ……………………………..72
4.2.2 Total Area Of The Courtyards Within The Building ………………………73
4.2.3 Total Number Of Reading Sections In The Building ………………………73
4.2.4 Floor To Ceiling Height ……………………..74
4.2.5 Walling System And The Materials Used ……………………….74
4.2.6 Floor And Ceiling Materials Used ……………………………………74
4.2.7 Window Types, Size And Materials Used …………………………….74
4.2.8 Type Of The Shading Control Strategies Used ………………………..75

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations ………………………….76
5.1 General Review Of Work ……………………………………………………….76
5.2 Conclusion ………………………………………..77
5.3 Recommendation ………………………………………………….78

References …………………………………………………….80
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APA

Ibraheem, A. (2018). THE EFFECTS OF PASSIVE SOLAR CONTROL ON HUMAN THERMAL COMFORT. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/the-effects-of-passive-solar-control-on-human-thermal-comfort-9894

MLA 8th

Ibraheem, Aminuddeen "THE EFFECTS OF PASSIVE SOLAR CONTROL ON HUMAN THERMAL COMFORT" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/the-effects-of-passive-solar-control-on-human-thermal-comfort-9894. Accessed 14 Jun. 2024.

MLA7

Ibraheem, Aminuddeen . "THE EFFECTS OF PASSIVE SOLAR CONTROL ON HUMAN THERMAL COMFORT". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 14 Jun. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/the-effects-of-passive-solar-control-on-human-thermal-comfort-9894 >.

Chicago

Ibraheem, Aminuddeen . "THE EFFECTS OF PASSIVE SOLAR CONTROL ON HUMAN THERMAL COMFORT" Afribary (2018). Accessed June 14, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/the-effects-of-passive-solar-control-on-human-thermal-comfort-9894