Generally speaking, it seems unlikely that English will cease to be used elaborately in Nigeria in a foreseeable future. This research work therefore will find out if students in the University of Ilorin borrow words from English in to Yoruba in their day to day interaction and if they do to identify this borrowings. The sample population used in this work is 80 (Eighty) students of the University of Ilorin and these students were randomly chosen from four faculties in this University and they are all Yoruba language speakers with the use of instruments like tape reader and audio cassette. From the data analyzed, it is observed that the Yoruba speaker use their language predominantly during communication not only borrow in most times a single lexical item from English and in corporate it within their utterances. Code-mixing, as a sociolinguistic phenomenon, is a familiar practice through out the world, most especially among bilinguals who combine certain linguistic items is from two different languages. In this regard, it was discovered that language contact also result in borrowing from one language to another.
It is a well established fact that English language has established itself firmly in Nigeria thus, its importance cannot be over emphasized. Apart from being an official language. English language is the rope that ties members of the different speech communities together in continuing interrelationships. It is the common instrument that they draw on for socio-cultural identification.
English language is said to be a human specific mode of expressing our thought through the verbal (i.e spoken and written) and non-verbal means. With this definition, we shall reiterate that English language necessarily serves humans in a multitude of ways: English language is said to have a great impact on the cognitive development of man: Man is able to express his thoughts and view.
The majority of world English speakers use English either as a second or third language and exists in an environment where in the least, bilingualism is the norm even though English may be the official language. In many countries, including Nigeria, English is the main language of instruction in schools (especially after primary education level) and it is used in business and other official transactions and interactions.
English came into Nigeria through colonization centuries ago and three main groups of people emerged from this contact of English with the indigenous languages of Nigeria. These groups are the British, the new Nigerian elite trained in Britain and the native indigenous population trained in Nigeria. A local variant of English emerged from the mixing of those groups of people. This local variant of English was coloured by influence from local languages. Borrowing of indigenous words into English is a result of this contact and these borrowed words are what we call ‘loan words’.
Today as English is used in almost every facet of life in Nigeria, it still comes in contact with practically all indigenous Nigerian languages and when Nigerians speak English words from their various indigenous languages occur in their speech
This research work therefore, will find out if students in the University of Ilorin borrow words from English into Yoruba in their day to day interaction and if they do, to identify these borrowings.
We shall also find out the sources of these borrowings. We hope to trace them to the various indigenous languages and which they use in a communication. In other words, effort shall be made extensively on the scope of the study and methodology involved in the collection of data.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vi
1.1 General Introduction 1
1.2 Scope and Delimitation of the study 3
1.3 Methodology 4
2.0 Introduction 5
2.1 The advent of English language in Nigeria 5
2.2 Functions of English language in Nigeria 8
2.3 Language contents 12
2.3.1 Effects of language contact 15
18.104.22.168 Bilingualism 15
22.214.171.124 Multilingualism 18
126.96.36.199 Code-switching 21
188.8.131.52 Code-mixing 23
184.108.40.206 Language shift 25
220.127.116.11 Language loss 27
18.104.22.168 Diglossia 28
22.214.171.124 Transfer 30
126.96.36.199 Interference 31
188.8.131.52.1 Phonological interference 33
184.108.40.206.2 Lexical interference 34
220.127.116.11.3 Grammatical interference 35
18.104.22.168 Borrowing 35
22.214.171.124.1 Types of borrowing 39
126.96.36.199.1.1 Loantranslations or calques 39
188.8.131.52.1.2 Loanblends 41
2.4 The influence of English language on our Nigeria
indigenous languages 41
2.5 Conclusion 44
3.0 Introduction 45
3.1 Presentation of data 45
3.1.1 Classification of borrowed words 45
184.108.40.206 Loantranslations or calques 45
220.127.116.11.2 Loanblends 47
3.2 English –Yoruba code-mixed sentence 48
3.3 Analysis 54
SUMMARY, FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION
4.0 Introduction 58
4.1 Summary 58
4.2 Findings 59
4.3 Conclusion 60
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