The International Legal Framework On Protection of Sexual Minority Rights in Kenya

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION .................................................................................................................................... i

DEDICATION ...................................................................................................................................... ii

APPROVAL. ......................................................................................................................................... iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................................................. iv

LIST OF ACRONYMS ........................................................................................................................ v

TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................................................... vi

ABSTRACT ......................................................................................................................................... viii

CHAPTER ONE ................................................................................................................................... 1

1.1 Introduction /Background ....................................................................................................... 1

1.2 Statement of the problem ......................................................................................................... 2

1.3 Purpose of the study .................................................................................................................. 5

1 .4 Research questions .................................................................................................................... 5

1.5 Hypothesis .................................................................................................................................... 6

1.6 Scope of the study ...................................................................................................................... 6

1. 7 Significance of the study .......................................................................................................... 7

1.8 Research methodology .............................................................................................................. 7

1.9 Synopsis of chapters .................................................................................................................. 7

1.10 Literature review ...................................................................................................................... 8

CHAPTER TWO ................................................................................................................................ 12

2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 12

2.2 Cultural relativism versus universalism ......................................................................... 13

2.3 International protection of sexual minorities ................................................................ 15

2.3.1 The UN Charter .............................................................................................................. 15

2.3.2 The international Bill of Rights .................................................................................. 16

2.3.3 Other treaties and General Comments or Recommendations ........................... 22

2.3.4 Resolutions and special mechanisms ...................................................................... 24

2.3.5 Yogyakarta Principles on the Application of International Human Rights Law

in Relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity .................................................. 26

2.4 Regional framework for protection of sexual minorities ............................................. 26

2.4.1 The European system .................................................................................................. 27

vi

2.4.2 The Inter-American system ........................................................................................ 28

2.4.3 African human rights system ..................................................................................... 29

2.5 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................. 31

CHAPTER THREE ............................................................................................................................ 33

3.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 33

3.2 The role of the judiciary in protecting minorities ......................................................... 33

3.3 Judicial review: A few case studies ................................................................................... 35

3.4 Challenges to judicial enforcement of sexual minority rights ................................... 38

3.4.1 Cultural attitudes ......................................................................................................... 38

3.4.2 Religion ............................................................................................................................ 40

3.4.3 The counter-majoritarian dilemma ........................................................................... 42

3.5 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................. 46

CHAPTER FOUR .............................................................................................................................. 48

4.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 48

4.2 The Kenyan criminal law provisions against same-sex conduct and their origins

················································································································································4.3 The framework for decriminalisation of same-sex conduct in Kenya ..................... 51

4.3.1 The Constitution ............................................................................................................ 51

4.3.2 International law ........................................................................................................... 54

4.3.3 Limitation of rights ....................................................................................................... 55

4.4 Other factors necessary for successful striking down of anti-homosexuality

legislation ....................................................................................................................................... 55

4.4.1 A reformed and independent judiciary .................................................................... 55

4.4.2 Judicial activism and purposive interpretation of the Constitution ................ 57

4.4.3 Participation of human rights organisations ......................................................... 59

4.5 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................ 60

5.1 Recommendations ............................................................................................................. 61

5.2 Conclusions .......................................................................................................................... 64

BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................................ 66  

ABSTRACT This dissertation contributes to understanding the problematic aspect of heterosexual dominance in leading development discourse, most especially in relation to gender, sexuality and human rights. In order to embrace a full perspective of gender, an expansion of the rights-based approach to include sexual minorities is suggested. Based on the lived experiences of lesbian, bisexual and transgender women in Kampala, Uganda and other countries in Africa, it is argued that human rights are constantly negotiated and interpreted to legitimize asocial and legal exclusion of selected members of society. Qualitative methodology has been employed to investigate issues of health, participation, employment and personal safety. The voices of the marginalised are explored from a local context and show that discrimination of sexual minorities is institutionalised and difficult to combat as the present human rights framework refrains from directly including this group as right-holders. The author argues that there is a strong relation between lack of sexual rights and marginalisation, where the latter occurs as a direct result of social and legal pervasive practises of discrimination in society, ranging from the government level to the nuclear family.

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APA

Frontiers, E. & WANJIKU, K (2022). The International Legal Framework On Protection of Sexual Minority Rights in Kenya. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/the-international-legal-framework-on-protection-of-sexual-minority-rights-in-kenya

MLA 8th

Frontiers, Edu, and KIMITI WANJIKU "The International Legal Framework On Protection of Sexual Minority Rights in Kenya" Afribary. Afribary, 22 Aug. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/the-international-legal-framework-on-protection-of-sexual-minority-rights-in-kenya. Accessed 26 Sep. 2022.

MLA7

Frontiers, Edu, and KIMITI WANJIKU . "The International Legal Framework On Protection of Sexual Minority Rights in Kenya". Afribary, Afribary, 22 Aug. 2022. Web. 26 Sep. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/the-international-legal-framework-on-protection-of-sexual-minority-rights-in-kenya >.

Chicago

Frontiers, Edu and WANJIKU, KIMITI . "The International Legal Framework On Protection of Sexual Minority Rights in Kenya" Afribary (2022). Accessed September 26, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/the-international-legal-framework-on-protection-of-sexual-minority-rights-in-kenya