The Role of the International Criminal Court (Icc) In Enhancing the Adjudication of Justice A Case Study Of The Genocide In Kenya

BRENDA .A JUMA 103 PAGES (28395 WORDS) Law Dissertation
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION ............................................................................................................................................... i

DEDICATION ................................................................................................................................................. ii

APPROVAL ..................................................................................................................................................... iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .............................................................................................................................. iv

STATUTES ...................................................................................................................................................... v

ABBREVIATIONS ......................................................................................................................................... vi

TABLE OF' CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................. vii

CHAPTER ONE .............................................................................................................................................. 1

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 1

1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY .................................................................................................... 4

1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ................................................................................................... S

1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY ............................................................................................................... S

1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY .................................................................................................................... S

1.6 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY ........................................................................................................ 6

1.6.1 General objectives ........................................................................................................................... 6

1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY .................................................................................................... 6

1.8 RESEARCH QUESTION .................................................................................................................. 7

1.9 HYPOTHESIS ........................................................................................................................................ 7

1.10 METI-IODOLOGY ............................................................................................................................... 8

1.11 LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................................................................................... 8

2.0 INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW AND THE ICC ................................................................... ll

2.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................ 11

2.2 HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL PROSECUTIONS ............................................. 12

2.2.1 Situation before World War 1 .................................................................................................... 12

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2.2.2 The aftermath of the 2nd World War ....................................................................................... 14

1. The Nuremburg Trials ........................................................................................................................ 14

2. The Tokyo War Crimes Trials .......................................................................................................... 15

3. The International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia (ICTY) ................................................... 16

4. The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) ........................................................ 17

2.3 THE ICC, ITS CREATION AND MANDATE ................................................................................ 18

2.3.1 DRAFTING AND ADOPTION OF THE STATUTE OF ICC .................................................. 18

2.3.2 Jurisdiction of the ICC Generally ............................................................................................ 20

2.3.3 Article 17 of the ICC Statute (Complementarity Principle) .............................................. 22

2.3.4 Of The Parameter to Invoke Article 17 of The Rome Statute .......................................... 25

2.3.5 The Question of "Unable" Clause in Article 17 .................................................................... 27

2.3.6 Ambiguity of "Inability" Terminology ...................................................................................... 29

2.4 The ICC and The Promise of Universal Jurisdiction ........................................................... 33

2.5 Unil'ersal cJuriscliction; Rekindling Faith In International Human Rights Regime ... 34

2.6 Institutions of criminallaw ............................................................................................................ 36

2.7 CONCLUSIONS .................................................................................................................................. 37

CHAPTER THREE ...................................................................................................................................... 38

3.0 THE QUESTION OF SOVEREIGNTY AND THE RULE OF LAW ......................................... 38

3.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................ 38

3.2 What is sovereignty? ........................................................................................................................ 38

3.3 Westphalia notion of Sovereignty ................................................................................................ 39

3.4 The Montevideo Convention on Sovereignty ............................................................................ 40

3.5 The Modern Trend and Exercise of the Notion of Sovereignty ........................................... 41

3.5.1 What is Legal Sovereignly? ......................................................................................................... 41

3.6 Rule of Law .......................................................................................................................................... 43

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3.6.1 Aristotle's Theory of Rule of Law .............................................................................................. 44

3.6.2 Dicey and the rule of law ............................................................................................................ 45

3.7.1 Types of State Immunity ............................................................................................................ 49

3. 7.2 Immunity Ratione Personae ....................................................................................................... 50

3.7.3 Immunity Ratio Materiae ........................................................................................................... Sl

3. 7.4 Contemporary conceptualization of territorial jurisdiction ............................................. 51

3.7.5 Objective territoriality .................................................................................................................. 52

3.7.6 Subjective territoriality ................................................................................................................ 53

3. 8 Immunity of Heads of State .......................................................................................................... 53

3.8.1 Extent of State Immunity ............................................... , ........................................................... 54

3.8.2 Sovereignty and the Maintenance of World Order ..................................................... , ....... 57

3.8.3 The Traditional Doctrine of Non-Intervention ..................................................................... 59

3.9 Limits to Sovereignty ...................................................................................................................... 60

3.9.1 Challenge to the Twin Principle of Sovereignty and Non- Intervention ...................... 53

3.9.2 The Universal Human Rights Challenge .............................................................................. 63

4.0 CHALLENGES FACED BY THE ICC IN ACHIEVING PEACE .............................................. 69

4.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................ 69

4.2 Slow Wheels of Justice .................................................................................................................... 69

4.3 Perception that ICC is a Barrier to Peace and Reconciliation ............................................ 70

4.4 Problem of Securing the Arrest and Transfer of wanted Suspects ................................... 71

4.5 Difficulties in Investigations in Conflict Zones ........................................................................ 71

4.6 Lack universal Ratification of the Rome statute ..................................................................... 72

4.7 Prosecution by the ICC is one of the few credible threats faced by leaders of warring

parties .......................................................................................................................................................... 72

4.8 Fear of prosecution can lead to entrenchment of culpable leaders .................................. 73

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4. 9 The ICC must secure convictions to ensure its credibility and effectiveness ............... 74

4.10 The ICC's effectiveness is dependent on the domestic and international support it

receives ........................................................................................................................................................ 7 5

4.11 The Prosecutor's job is to prosecute ......................................................................................... 76

4.12 Impunity should always be a last resort.. ............................................................................... 77

4. 13 The ICC's current investigations ............................................................................................... 81

4. 14 CON CLUSI 0 N .................................................................................................................................. 84

CHAPTER FIVE ........................................................................................................................................... 85

5. 1 RECO MM ENDA TI 0 NS ..................................................................................................................... 85

5. 2 CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................................. 90

BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................................................................................................................... 91


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APA

JUMA, B (2022). The Role of the International Criminal Court (Icc) In Enhancing the Adjudication of Justice A Case Study Of The Genocide In Kenya. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/the-role-of-the-international-criminal-court-icc-in-enhancing-the-adjudication-of-justice-a-case-study-of-the-genocide-in-kenya

MLA 8th

JUMA, BRENDA "The Role of the International Criminal Court (Icc) In Enhancing the Adjudication of Justice A Case Study Of The Genocide In Kenya" Afribary. Afribary, 17 Aug. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/the-role-of-the-international-criminal-court-icc-in-enhancing-the-adjudication-of-justice-a-case-study-of-the-genocide-in-kenya. Accessed 07 Oct. 2022.

MLA7

JUMA, BRENDA . "The Role of the International Criminal Court (Icc) In Enhancing the Adjudication of Justice A Case Study Of The Genocide In Kenya". Afribary, Afribary, 17 Aug. 2022. Web. 07 Oct. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/the-role-of-the-international-criminal-court-icc-in-enhancing-the-adjudication-of-justice-a-case-study-of-the-genocide-in-kenya >.

Chicago

JUMA, BRENDA . "The Role of the International Criminal Court (Icc) In Enhancing the Adjudication of Justice A Case Study Of The Genocide In Kenya" Afribary (2022). Accessed October 07, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/the-role-of-the-international-criminal-court-icc-in-enhancing-the-adjudication-of-justice-a-case-study-of-the-genocide-in-kenya