Trafficking in Women and Children in South Sudan: Analysis of the Legal Frame Work

ABSTRACT The research analyses the national legal framework for trafficking in women and children in South Sudan. After the independence from Sudan in 2011, South Sudan ratified number of international Anti Trafficking and Human Rights Treaties, as well as regulating its own legislation to combat crimes in general and trafficking in particular. But it has not ratified some international treaties concerning with the suppression of human trafficking for example the 2000 Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime. The researcher was motivated by the international and local civil society organizations reports about increasing instances of trafficking after !he 2013 conflict started in South Sudan. The main purpose is to examine South Sudan national laws that legislate human trafficking. The research identified some gaps in the national legislation of South Sudan for example the Penal Code 2008 which is not clear in criminalizing traffickers The study also established that the existing national laws of South Sudan are not fully enforced due to the limited capacity of the law enforcement officers, the Courts often lack adequate human and physical resources to investigate and prosecute crimes, including human trafficking. It was further found out that corruption is pervasive in the judicial sector, including the use of intimidation and bribery. It recommends the reform of the National Criminal Justice System. As well as South Sudan Penal Code 2008 should incorporate clear legal definition of trafficking in persons and trafficking in women and children. The research further recommends. that the difference between trafficking in persons, human smuggling and irregular migration should be clearly provided for, as well as revising articles 282 and 277 of the South Sudan Penal Code 2008. Trafficking in persons for all-purpose should be criminalized and treated in more clear and comprehensive manner.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DEDICATION ..................................................................................................................... i

DECLARATION ................................................................................................................. ii

PPROVAL .......................................................................................................................... iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................. iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................................... v

LIST OF STATUTES ........................................................................................................ ix

LIST OF ACRYNOMS ...................................................................................................... xi

ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................... xii

CHAPTER ONE ................................................................................................................ I

GENERAL INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................ I

1.0 Background to the study ................................................................................................ I

1.1 Statement of the Problem .............................................................................................. 7

1.2 Research Objectives ...................................................................................................... 9

1.2.1 General Objectives ..................................................................................................... 9

1.2.2 Specific objectives ...................................................................................................... 9

1.3 Research Questions ..................................................................................................... l 0

1.4 Scope of the Study ....................................................................................................... IO

1.4.1 Time Scope ............................................................................................................... IO

1.5 Significance of the Study ............................................................................................ 11

1.6 Methodology ............................................................................................................... II

1.7 Chapterlisation ............................................................................................................. 12

1.8 Literature Review ........................................................................................................ 13

CHAPTER TW0 ............................................................................................................. 21

THE NATURE, FORMS, CAUSES AND IMPACT OF WOMEN AND

CHILDREN TRAFFICKING ........................................................................................ 21

2.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 21

2.1 Nature of South Sudan ................................................................................................ 22

2.1.1 The Ethnic Groups in South Sudan .......................................................................... 23

v

2.1.2 Population of South Sudan ....................................................................................... 24

2.1.3 Independence of South Sudan .................................................................................. 25

2.1.4 Social- Economic Value South Sudan ..................................................................... 25

2.1.5 East Africa Community Membership ....................................................................... 26

2.2 Forms of human Trafficking in South Sudan .............................................................. 27

2.2.1 Trafficking in women and children for sexual exploitation ..................................... 27

2.2.2 Trafficking for forced labour .................................................................................... 27

2.2.3 Trafficking in organs ................................................................................................ 28

2.2.4 Child Soldiers ........................................................................................................... 28

2.2.5 Recruitment of Trafficking Victims ......................................................................... 29

2.2.6 Transportation of Trafficking Victims ..................................................................... 29

2.2.7 Irregular Migration vs. Trafficking in Persons ......................................................... 30

2.2.8 Human Smuggling vs. Trafficking in Persons ......................................................... 31

2.2.9 Human Trafficking and HIV/AIDS .......................................................................... 33

2.3 Causes of human trafficking in South Sudan .............................................................. 33

2.3.1 Poverty and unemployment.. .................................................................................... 35

2.3.2 Humanitarian Crisis .................................................................................................. 36

2.3.3 Lack of Education .................................................................................................... 36

2.3.4 Absence of Birth Registration .................................................................................. 36

2.3.5 Insufficient or Unenforced Legislation .................................................................... 37

2.3.6 International Adoption ............................................................................................. 37

2.3.7 Corruption ................................................................................................................ 37

2.3.8 Armed Conflict ......................................................................................................... 38

2.4 Impact of human trafficking in South Sudan .............................................................. 39

2.4.1 Impact of child trafficking in South Sudan ............................................................. .40

2.5 Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 41

CHAPTER THREE ........................................................................................................ 42

THE INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORK TO SUPPRESS THE

PATTERN OF TRAFFICKING IN WOMEN AND CHILDREN ............................. 42

3.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 42

VI

3.1 Ratification of a Treaty or Convention in South Sudan ............................................. .42

3.2 International Instruments ............................................................................................. 44

3.2.1 United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime ..................... .45

3.2.2 Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially

Women and Children, ........................................................................................................ 46

3.2.3 ILO Convention 138 Minimum Age Admission to Employment 1973 .................. .49

3.2.4 Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers ..................... .49

3.2.5 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) 1989 ................. 50

3.2.6 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against

Women .............................................................................................................................. 50

3.2.7 The Convention Against Torture (CAT ................................................................... 50

3.2.8 The African Chatter on the Rights and Welfare of the Children 1999 ................... 51

3.2.9 The Principle of non-Refoulement ........................................................................... 52

3.3 CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................... 53

CHAPTER FOUR ........................................................................................................... 54

THE CURRENT LEGAL REGIME IN SOUTH SUDAN TO SUPPRESS

THE PATTERN OF TRAFFICKING IN WOMEN AND CHILDREN ................... 54

4.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................... , ...... 54

4.1 Introduction to the Legal System of the Republic of South Sudan ............................. 54

4.2 South Sudan Laws on trafficking ................................................................................ 56

4.2.1 South Sudan Constitution 20 !! ................................................................................ 56

4.2.2 The Penal Code Act 2008 ......................................................................................... 57

4.2.3 South Sudan's Child Act of2008 ............................................................................. 58

4.2.4 Definition of human trafficking under South Sudan Law ........................................ 58

4.2.5 Laws against Child Trafficking ................................................................................ 60

4.2.6 Immigration and trafficking in South Sudan ............................................................ 62

4.3 Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 66

VII

CHAPTER FIVE ............................................................................................................. 68

FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..................................... 68

5.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 68

5.1 Findings ....................................................................................................................... 68

5.2 Conclusion ................................................................................................................... 69

5.3 Recommendations ....................................................................................................... 70

REFERENCES .................................................................................................................. 74  



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APA

ATOURA, A (2022). Trafficking in Women and Children in South Sudan: Analysis of the Legal Frame Work. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/trafficking-in-women-and-children-in-south-sudan-analysis-of-the-legal-frame-work

MLA 8th

ATOURA, ANGELA "Trafficking in Women and Children in South Sudan: Analysis of the Legal Frame Work" Afribary. Afribary, 05 Oct. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/trafficking-in-women-and-children-in-south-sudan-analysis-of-the-legal-frame-work. Accessed 13 Jun. 2024.

MLA7

ATOURA, ANGELA . "Trafficking in Women and Children in South Sudan: Analysis of the Legal Frame Work". Afribary, Afribary, 05 Oct. 2022. Web. 13 Jun. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/trafficking-in-women-and-children-in-south-sudan-analysis-of-the-legal-frame-work >.

Chicago

ATOURA, ANGELA . "Trafficking in Women and Children in South Sudan: Analysis of the Legal Frame Work" Afribary (2022). Accessed June 13, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/trafficking-in-women-and-children-in-south-sudan-analysis-of-the-legal-frame-work