Linden (2000) remarks that for decades ago, cities such as Lagos city and Cairo were relatively attractive places to live, with little traffic along their spacious cleaning swept boulevards. Mijah(2003) claimed Kaduna was a decade back, now Kaduna metropolitan have quadrupled and theirquality of life greatly degenerated. The implication include high rate of diseases due tounsanitary conditions, social problems such as crime, unemployment etc. the process of urbanization presents enormous challenges to government, social and environmental planners,architects, engineers and inhabitants of Kaduna metropolis.The increasing number of people living in Kaduna cities creates demand, in areas such ashousing and services. Although traffic jams, poor air quality and increasing health risks, makelife in megacities mere difficult and people continue to choose to live there. Therefore it isessential that more government programmes are implemented in order to help improve livingconditions because the inhabitants of Kaduna metropolis areas also offer great chance certain ofthe income for the state. Therefore, against this that the following research questions areestablished.Urbanization is increasing in both the developed and developing countries. In 1950, for instance30 percent of the world's population lived in urban areas, by 2002, that figure had risen to 47percent of the global population (UN population Division, 2002). Over three quarter of thepopulation of industrialized countries presently live in urban areas, while rural to urbanmigration in developing countries is increasing at a rapid pace. This rapid-and often2
uncontrolled urbanization is unprecedented by historical standards (van Ginkel, 2008). Yet,urbanization rates in developing regions differ widely; while in Latin America and theCaribbean urbanization rates stand at 78 percent, only 34 percent of the African population livesin urban areas. By 2020, it is predicted that nearly half (46.2 percent) of the population will beurban (UN-Habitat, 2001). Nigeria since independence has become an increasingly urbanizedand urban-oriented society in Africa. During the 1970s Nigeria had possibly the fastesturbanization growing rate in the world. Because of the great influx of people into urban areas,the growth rate of urban population in Nigeria in 1986 was estimated to be close to 6 percentper year, more than twice that of the rural population. Between 1970 and 1980, the proportion ofNigerians living in urban was estimated to have grown from 16 to more than 20 percent, and by2010, Urban population was expected to be more than 40 percent of the nation's total(Ekpenyond,2015:3). The implications of rapid urbanization and demographic trends foremployment, food security, water supply and sanitation are staggering (UNCED, 1992). Thequestion that arises is whether the current trend in urban growth is sustainable considering theaccompanying urban challenges for assuring household food security and access to basicservices such as adequate housing, water, sanitation, education, health etc. especially in Kaduna.The concept of globalization implies, first and foremost, a stretching of social, political andeconomic activities across frontiers such that events, decisions and activities in one region of theworld can come to have significance for individuals and communities in distant regions of theglobe.(Held, McGrew,Goldblatt, &Perraton, 1999: 15)Despite efforts at both the local and international levels toward resolving this urban growthproblem and ensuring sustainable development, current realities suggest that the goal ofachieving sustainability in the country is yet to be realized. Rather than improving, the physical3
condition of the cities continues to degenerate while investment in urban infrastructure includinghousing, has failed to keep pace with the growing population (Jiboye, 2009). A major reasonattributable for these urban developmental problems in Nigeria is the lack of effectivemechanism of governance needed to ensure a rational level of equilibrium between the growingpopulation, the cities environment and existing infrastructure; hence, the increasing poor qualityof the living conditions and low livability index of urban areas in Nigeria (Jiboye, 2011b;Daramola & Ibem, 2011). There is a need for effective mechanism to stimulate progressiveurbanization in our cities. This need thus constitutes a critical challenge to urban governance anddevelopment in Nigeria.However, it has been established that the degrading condition of the cities’ environment in mostdeveloping nations affects the socio-economic and national development (Ogunleye, 2005).Therefore, a major developmental challenge facing the nations -particularly those within thedeveloping world, is how to cope with the increasing urbanization and minimize its adverseconsequences on the cities’ environment as well as the overall wellbeing of the people (Jiboye,2011b).According to Achankeng (2003), rightfully argued that globalization brings opportunities formany cities, especially those that can be key centers for production, distribution and services forliberalizing economies. However, increasing evidence suggests that globalization is also creatingan increasingly unequal world in terms of distribution of incomes, assets and economic power.While some few countries and their cities are incorporated into it, others are bypassed orexcluded. Some are incorporated but at huge social costs. Globalization has raised sometroubling concerns for the developing world, including Nigeria (Kaduna Cities). One suchconcern is its impact on urbanization and the ramifications that go with it. Cities are traditionally4
engines of social modernization and economic growth and at the same time the theatres in whichglobalization stages its actions. For Kaduna this has meant fueling the already unprecedentedurban growth phenomenon and increasing the challenges that go with it. One key challenge is themanagement of urbanization and security.The expected functions of city governments can also be categorized into economic: jobprovision, regulating cost of living, formalizing economic exchange, etc; Social; health services,education, water, etc; political; inclusion, participation, accountability, etc; infrastructure;transportation, electricity, etc,; security and safety, justice and equity, etc.(Mijah, 2014)Globalization has been identified as playing a negative role in urbanization and security inKaduna cities. Impacts include the A major concern with the exponential growth of urbanpopulation in Nigeria is the problem of meeting growing public expectations in the face of theincreasing roll-back of the Nigerian state from the domain of public provisioning.. In otherwords, the roll-back of the state, on one hand, coupled with the rapid rate of urbanization inNigeria is reconfiguring social, cultural, economic, political, etc, spaces in a manner that possessnew challenges of governing such spaces. Like most “megacities” in Nigeria, Kaduna faces anumber of transformational problems associated with its fast changing urban landscape. Of suchproblems, mention must be made of infrastructure collapse, population density, dual economies,poverty, crime, high levels of social fragmentation, etc, all of which constitute a credible threat tosecurity in the state and beyond (Mijah, 2014). Globalization have changed life style andconsumption patterns; conflicting involvement of multi-national companies with local initiativegroups, city and Kaduna government in management matters and other issues which directly orindirectly affect urbanization and security.
Isabel, B (2020). SECURITY THREAT OF URBANISATION IN NIGERIA; A CASE STUDY OF KADUNA STATE. Afribary.com: Retrieved February 28, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/urbanisation-in-nigera
Baamshal, Isabel. "SECURITY THREAT OF URBANISATION IN NIGERIA; A CASE STUDY OF KADUNA STATE" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 08 Sep. 2020, https://afribary.com/works/urbanisation-in-nigera . Accessed 28 Feb. 2021.
Baamshal, Isabel. "SECURITY THREAT OF URBANISATION IN NIGERIA; A CASE STUDY OF KADUNA STATE". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 08 Sep. 2020. Web. 28 Feb. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/urbanisation-in-nigera >.
Baamshal, Isabel. "SECURITY THREAT OF URBANISATION IN NIGERIA; A CASE STUDY OF KADUNA STATE" Afribary.com (2020). Accessed February 28, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/urbanisation-in-nigera