SECURITY THREAT OF URBANISATION IN NIGERIA; A CASE STUDY OF KADUNA STATE

Isabel Baamshal 96 PAGES (25340 WORDS) Project
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 INTRODUCTION

Linden (2000) remarks that for decades ago, cities such as Lagos city and Cairo were relatively attractive places to live, with little traffic along their spacious cleaning swept boulevards. Mijah(2003) claimed Kaduna was a decade back, now Kaduna metropolitan have quadrupled and theirquality   of   life   greatly   degenerated.   The   implication   include   high   rate   of   diseases   due   tounsanitary   conditions,   social   problems   such   as   crime,   unemployment   etc.   the   process   of urbanization presents enormous challenges to government, social and environmental planners,architects, engineers and inhabitants of Kaduna metropolis.The   increasing number of  people   living  in Kaduna cities   creates   demand,   in areas such   ashousing and services. Although traffic jams, poor air quality and increasing health risks, makelife in  megacities mere difficult and  people continue to choose to live there. Therefore it isessential that more government programmes are implemented in order to help improve livingconditions because the inhabitants of Kaduna metropolis areas also offer great chance certain ofthe   income   for   the   state.   Therefore,   against   this   that   the   following   research   questions   areestablished.Urbanization is increasing in both the developed and developing countries. In 1950, for instance30 percent of the world's population lived in urban areas, by 2002, that figure had risen to 47percent of the global population (UN population Division, 2002). Over three  quarter of thepopulation   of   industrialized   countries   presently   live   in   urban   areas,   while   rural   to   urbanmigration   in   developing   countries   is   increasing   at   a   rapid   pace.   This   rapid-and   often2

uncontrolled  urbanization is  unprecedented  by historical   standards (van  Ginkel,  2008). Yet,urbanization   rates   in   developing   regions   differ   widely;   while   in   Latin  America   and   theCaribbean urbanization rates stand at 78 percent, only 34 percent of the African population livesin urban areas. By 2020, it is predicted that nearly half (46.2 percent) of the population will beurban (UN-Habitat, 2001). Nigeria since independence has become an increasingly urbanizedand   urban-oriented   society   in   Africa.   During   the   1970s   Nigeria   had   possibly   the   fastesturbanization growing rate in the world. Because of the great influx of people into urban areas,the growth rate of urban population in Nigeria in 1986 was estimated to be close to 6 percentper year, more than twice that of the rural population. Between 1970 and 1980, the proportion ofNigerians living in urban was estimated to have grown from 16 to more than 20 percent, and by2010,   Urban   population   was   expected   to   be   more   than   40   percent   of   the   nation's   total(Ekpenyond,2015:3).   The   implications   of   rapid   urbanization   and   demographic   trends   foremployment, food security, water supply and sanitation are staggering (UNCED, 1992). Thequestion that arises is whether the current trend in urban growth is sustainable considering theaccompanying   urban   challenges   for   assuring   household   food   security   and   access   to   basicservices such as adequate housing, water, sanitation, education, health etc. especially in Kaduna.The concept of globalization implies, first and foremost, a stretching of social, political andeconomic activities across frontiers such that events, decisions and activities in one region of theworld can come to have significance for individuals and communities in distant regions of theglobe.(Held, McGrew,Goldblatt, &Perraton, 1999: 15)Despite  efforts at   both the local and  international levels toward resolving  this urban growthproblem   and   ensuring   sustainable   development,   current   realities   suggest   that   the   goal   ofachieving sustainability in the country is yet to be realized. Rather than improving, the physical3

condition of the cities continues to degenerate while investment in urban infrastructure includinghousing, has failed to keep pace with the growing population (Jiboye, 2009). A major reasonattributable   for   these   urban   developmental   problems   in   Nigeria   is   the   lack   of   effectivemechanism of governance needed to ensure a rational level of equilibrium between the growingpopulation, the cities environment and existing infrastructure; hence, the increasing poor qualityof   the   living   conditions  and   low   livability   index   of   urban   areas   in   Nigeria   (Jiboye,   2011b;Daramola & Ibem, 2011). There is a need for effective mechanism to  stimulate progressiveurbanization in our cities. This need thus constitutes a critical challenge to urban governance anddevelopment in Nigeria.However, it has been established that the degrading condition of the cities’ environment in mostdeveloping   nations   affects   the   socio-economic   and   national   development   (Ogunleye,   2005).Therefore, a major developmental  challenge facing the nations -particularly those within thedeveloping world, is how to cope with the increasing urbanization and minimize its adverseconsequences on the cities’ environment as well as the overall wellbeing of the people (Jiboye,2011b).According  to Achankeng (2003), rightfully argued  that globalization brings opportunities formany cities, especially those that can be key centers for production, distribution and services forliberalizing economies. However, increasing evidence suggests that globalization is also creatingan increasingly unequal world in terms of distribution of incomes, assets and economic power.While   some   few   countries   and   their   cities   are   incorporated   into   it,   others   are   bypassed   orexcluded.   Some   are   incorporated   but   at   huge   social   costs.  Globalization   has   raised   sometroubling   concerns   for   the   developing   world,   including   Nigeria   (Kaduna   Cities).   One   suchconcern is its impact on urbanization and the ramifications that go with it. Cities are traditionally4

engines of social modernization and economic growth and at the same time the theatres in whichglobalization stages its actions. For Kaduna this has meant fueling the already unprecedentedurban growth phenomenon and increasing the challenges that go with it. One key challenge is themanagement of urbanization and security.The   expected   functions   of   city   governments   can   also   be   categorized   into   economic:   jobprovision, regulating cost of living, formalizing economic exchange, etc; Social; health services,education,   water,   etc;   political;   inclusion,   participation,   accountability,   etc;   infrastructure;transportation,   electricity,   etc,;   security   and   safety,   justice   and   equity,   etc.(Mijah,   2014)Globalization  has  been  identified  as   playing  a   negative  role  in  urbanization  and   security  inKaduna   cities.   Impacts   include   the  A  major   concern   with   the   exponential   growth   of   urbanpopulation in Nigeria is the problem of meeting growing public expectations in the face of theincreasing roll-back   of the Nigerian   state from   the   domain of  public  provisioning.. In   otherwords, the roll-back of the state, on one hand, coupled with the rapid rate of urbanization inNigeria is reconfiguring social, cultural, economic, political, etc, spaces in a manner that possessnew challenges of governing such spaces. Like most “megacities” in Nigeria, Kaduna faces anumber of transformational problems associated with its fast changing urban landscape. Of suchproblems, mention must be made of infrastructure collapse, population density, dual economies,poverty, crime, high levels of social fragmentation, etc, all of which constitute a credible threat tosecurity   in   the   state   and   beyond   (Mijah,   2014).   Globalization   have   changed   life   style   andconsumption patterns; conflicting involvement of multi-national companies with local initiativegroups, city and Kaduna government in management matters and other issues which directly orindirectly affect urbanization and security.

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APA

Isabel, B (2020). SECURITY THREAT OF URBANISATION IN NIGERIA; A CASE STUDY OF KADUNA STATE. Afribary.com: Retrieved February 28, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/urbanisation-in-nigera

MLA 8th

Baamshal, Isabel. "SECURITY THREAT OF URBANISATION IN NIGERIA; A CASE STUDY OF KADUNA STATE" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 08 Sep. 2020, https://afribary.com/works/urbanisation-in-nigera . Accessed 28 Feb. 2021.

MLA7

Baamshal, Isabel. "SECURITY THREAT OF URBANISATION IN NIGERIA; A CASE STUDY OF KADUNA STATE". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 08 Sep. 2020. Web. 28 Feb. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/urbanisation-in-nigera >.

Chicago

Baamshal, Isabel. "SECURITY THREAT OF URBANISATION IN NIGERIA; A CASE STUDY OF KADUNA STATE" Afribary.com (2020). Accessed February 28, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/urbanisation-in-nigera