Abundance and distibution of squirrel in FCWM New Bussa, Niger State, Nigeria.


ABSTRACT

        The study was conducted on the abundance and the distribution of squirrel in federal college of wildlife management, by identifying the types, abundance and the distribution of squirrel species utilizing the study area. Four randomly selected plots 200m each were established in the college estate namely, Farm land area (plot 1) Mini zoo area (plot 2), Residential area (plot 3), and (plot 4). Natural land area. Census was carried out for a period of three (3) months (April- June 2016). Each site was visited five (5) days in the month. Period of visit was between 6:00am – 9:00am in the morning and 3:00pm – 6:00pm in the evening. Counting was carried out for ten (10) minutes and recorded. The activities performed, and types of places inhabited by squirrel were also recorded. It is quite cleared that the types of squirrel utilizing the study area are only two (grey/tree squirrel and ground squirrel) and the grey squirrel’s population is much more than that of ground squirrel in the study area (ground squirrels (20.11%), grey squirrels (79.89%)). The number of squirrel counted in the study area is totaled189.  Therefore the total population density of squirrel censured in the college estate presently is 2363 per 2.5km2. majority of squirrel sighted were found eating ( 51%) and being the highest, while those found standing make the least having 5% only. Others activities are courtship, walking and running. Viteleria paradoxa, Daniella oliverri were among the trees being used by squirrels in the area. Frequent and unplanned bush burning within the estate are some of the problems found facing squirrels species populations while the solutions suggested include,  stopping of deforestation and unplanned bush burning in the entire college estate.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page……………………………………………………………………………….. i


Certification……………………………………………………………………………   ii


Dedication………………………………………………………………………………. iii


Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………….... iv


Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………. v


Table of content…………………………………………………………………………..vi-viii


List of tables ……………………………………………………………………………. ix


List of figures……………………………………………………………………………..x 


CHAPTER ONE


  1. Introduction ………………………………………………………………………… 1

    1.1 background of the study ……………………………………………………………...1-3

    1.2  statement of the problems ………………………………………………………….. 3

    1.3 justification of the study ……………………………………………………………. 3

    1.4 objective of the study …………………………………………………………..........3-4

    1.5 scope of the study ……………………………………………………………………4

    CHAPTER TWO

  2. Literature review……………………………………………………………………..5

      1. Description of tree-gray squirrel (sciurus carolinesis)…………………………...5

      2. Reproduction ………………………………………………………………......... 6

      3. Habitat …………………………………………………………………………....6

      4. Feeding habit …………………………………………………………………….6-7

    1. African ground squirrels…………………………………………………………….7

      1. Scientific classification of ground squirrels……………………………………..7-8

      2. Distribution ……………………………………………………………………...8

      3. Habitat and food habits ………………………………………………………….8-9

        2.3       Nests ……………………………………………………………………………..9 

        2.3.1    Cover and defense strategies……………………………………………………..10

        2.4       Economic importance for human: negative……………………………………...10-11

        2.4.1   Economic importance for human: positive...………………………………………11

        2.5.1   Laws and regulation...………………………………..…………………………….11

        2.6 Predation ……………………………………………………………………………..11-12

        2.7 Ecosystem roles ……………………………………………………………………....12

        2.8 Conservation status …………………………………………………………………...12

        2.9 Population reduction ………………………………………………………………….12

        2.10 Control ……………………………………………………………………………...12-13

        2.10.1 Repellents…………………………………………………………………………13-14

        2.10.2 Fencing and other barriers …………………………………………………….......14

        2.11 Problem facing wildlife management ………………………………………………15

        CHAPTERTHREE

  3. Materials and methods……………………………………………………………....16

    1. The study design ……………………………………………………………………16

      3.1.2 Climate …………………………………………………………………..…..……16

      3.1.3 Vegetation …………………………………………………………………………16-17

      3.1.4 Topography ………………………………………………………………………...17

      3.2 Materials and method ………………………………………………………………..18

      3.2.2 Materials …………………………………………………………………………18

      3.2.3 Data collection techniques ………………………………………………….……18

      3.2.4 Data analysis ……………………………………………………………………...18

      CHAPTERFOUR

  4. Result and discussion ………………………………………………………………...19

    1. Result………………………………………………………………………………19-28

    2.  Discussion………………………………………………………………………….29-30

      CHAPTERFIVE

  5. Conclusion and recommendation ……………………………………………………..31

    1. Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………….. 31

    2. Recommendation…………………...………………………………………………....31

      Reference…………………………………………………………………………………….32-



 


LIST OF TABLES


Table4.1. Relative abundance of squirrels’ species utilizing the study area (%)………………….   22


Table4.2 Sighting distance of squirrel species in the study area(%)………………………………   23


Table 4.3. Major plants species inhabit by squirrels species in the study area (%)………………..   27Table 4.4. Problems facing squirrel species in the study area and solutions proffered……………   28



 


LIST OF FIGURES


Fig. 4.1 Types of squirrel utilizing the study area (%)………………………………………………21


Fig. 4.2 Sighting locations (%)………………………………………………………………………24


Fig. 4. 3. Activities performed by squirrel species during count in the study area (%)……………...25


Fig. 4. 4. Distribution of squirrel in the study area (%)………………………………………….......26









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APA

Ahmed, K. & A., K (2018). Abundance and distibution of squirrel in FCWM New Bussa, Niger State, Nigeria.. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/abundance-and-distibution-of-squirrel-in-fcwm-new-bussa-niger-state-nigeria

MLA 8th

Ahmed, Kamarudeen, and Kamarudeen A. "Abundance and distibution of squirrel in FCWM New Bussa, Niger State, Nigeria." Afribary. Afribary, 03 Jun. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/abundance-and-distibution-of-squirrel-in-fcwm-new-bussa-niger-state-nigeria. Accessed 15 Apr. 2024.

MLA7

Ahmed, Kamarudeen, and Kamarudeen A. . "Abundance and distibution of squirrel in FCWM New Bussa, Niger State, Nigeria.". Afribary, Afribary, 03 Jun. 2018. Web. 15 Apr. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/abundance-and-distibution-of-squirrel-in-fcwm-new-bussa-niger-state-nigeria >.

Chicago

Ahmed, Kamarudeen and A., Kamarudeen . "Abundance and distibution of squirrel in FCWM New Bussa, Niger State, Nigeria." Afribary (2018). Accessed April 15, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/abundance-and-distibution-of-squirrel-in-fcwm-new-bussa-niger-state-nigeria