An Analysis of Informal Cross Border Trade and the Effect on Kenya’s Security: A Case Study of the Kenya-Somalia Border 1991-2018

Abstract:

In the Horn of Africa region borderland areas exhibit some of the lowest human development indicators in terms of access to basic social amenities. Issues such as interstate and intro-state conflicts and tensions, human trafficking and smuggling, trafficking in Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALWs) afflict borderlands and further threaten the human security of communities. The Kenya - Somalia communities maintain trans-boundary socio-economic and cultural ties through participation in informal cross border wade (ICBT). The exchanges and interactions between the communities along this border play a critical role in the stability and sustainability of the livelihoods of the communities. Informal Cross Border Trade (ICBT) has positive macroeconomic and social ramifications such as food security and income creation particularly for rural populations who would otherwise suffer from social exclusion. Despite being a source of income to about 43 percent of Africa's population, ICBT is generally regarded as illegal commercialization of cross border activities (Afrika and Ajumbo, 2012). ICBT may be welfare enhancing for populations along the borders but it has had serious consequences to the economy and security of States. At the Kenya -Somalia Border, ICBT has become a securitized issue. The proceeds from the trade are believed to be funding the Al Shabab. Following the frequent incursions by the Al Shabab militia into Kenya which has resulted in sporadic killings, including the shooting of security agents such as administrative police officers, there was a directive by the Kenyan government to close the Kenya - Somalia border, consequently, a number of security border posts have been closed down. This has led to major security gaps in the border and also encouraged ICBT. This uncoordinated securitization of cross border trade and uncoordinated regulatory frameworks that regulates the Kenyan border while protecting country national security interrupts market supply while denying easy and secure border movements at the Kenya -Somalia border. This research explores informal cross-border wade ailing the Konya -Somali border area and seeks to examine the nexus between ICBT and security and the implication of the informal trade on Kenya's security.
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APA

Adam, U (2024). An Analysis of Informal Cross Border Trade and the Effect on Kenya’s Security: A Case Study of the Kenya-Somalia Border 1991-2018. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/an-analysis-of-informal-cross-border-trade-and-the-effect-on-kenya-s-security-a-case-study-of-the-kenya-somalia-border-1991-2018

MLA 8th

Adam, Umulqer "An Analysis of Informal Cross Border Trade and the Effect on Kenya’s Security: A Case Study of the Kenya-Somalia Border 1991-2018" Afribary. Afribary, 04 May. 2024, https://afribary.com/works/an-analysis-of-informal-cross-border-trade-and-the-effect-on-kenya-s-security-a-case-study-of-the-kenya-somalia-border-1991-2018. Accessed 21 May. 2024.

MLA7

Adam, Umulqer . "An Analysis of Informal Cross Border Trade and the Effect on Kenya’s Security: A Case Study of the Kenya-Somalia Border 1991-2018". Afribary, Afribary, 04 May. 2024. Web. 21 May. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/an-analysis-of-informal-cross-border-trade-and-the-effect-on-kenya-s-security-a-case-study-of-the-kenya-somalia-border-1991-2018 >.

Chicago

Adam, Umulqer . "An Analysis of Informal Cross Border Trade and the Effect on Kenya’s Security: A Case Study of the Kenya-Somalia Border 1991-2018" Afribary (2024). Accessed May 21, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/an-analysis-of-informal-cross-border-trade-and-the-effect-on-kenya-s-security-a-case-study-of-the-kenya-somalia-border-1991-2018