One of the fundamental factors that determine the success or failure of a behavioural change
campaign is the nature of communication strategies adopted by the change agent. Nigeria has
been declared a polio free nation, but scholarly attention has not been given to the role played
by communication strategies in the success of polio immunisation and eradication projects in
Northern Nigeria. This study, therefore, investigated the communication strategies used in polio
immunisation campaigns in Kaduna and Sokoto states, the extent of participation in the design
and implementation of these strategies, the influence of demographic, socio-cultural variables
and knowledge on acceptance and use of polio vaccine.
Health Belief Model, Multi-Step Flow and Knowledge Gap theories were adopted. Five key
informant interviews were conducted with one each of parent, opinion/religious leader,
UNICEF/WHO official, health reporter, and Federal Ministry of Health worker, each of whom
was purposively selected. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered on 200
parents/guardians purposively selected from Kwarbai, Sabon Fegi, in Kaduna State; Dange
Shuni and Sokoto Municipal in Sokoto State. Four focus group discussion sessions comprising
10 participants from each study area were conducted with parents who have children aged
between one and five years. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive and chi-square
statistics at p< 0.05, while qualitative data were content analysed.
Strategies used in the two states were advocacy, social mobilisation and programme
communication. Their manifestations were: Advocacy: (Kaduna-79.8%, Sokoto-70.0%) and
Social Mobilization: (Kaduna-69.2%, Sokoto-84.7%). The programme communication in
Kaduna (74.7%) and Sokoto (84.7%) showed that the responses did not conform on the issue of
acceptance of a singular communication strategy (x2=314.7). The need to adopt multiple
communication strategies in both states was reiterated. The implementation of the contents of
polio campaign strategies was low (x2=15.9). Adoption of multiple communication strategies
was more effective in both states (x2=314.7). Demographic factors influenced their acceptance
and use of polio immunisation as there was conformity in response across the two states
(x2=0.1). Socio-cultural variables influenced acceptance and use of polio vaccine (x2=0.1).
Respondents‘ knowledge and awareness of polio immunisation influenced them to accept and
use polio vaccine.
Adoption of different communication strategies led to increased acceptance and use of polio
immunization among parents/guardians in Kaduna and Sokoto States. Multi-dimensional
communication strategies should be used in order to achieve maximum success in
immunisation campaign to eradicate polio in Nigeria.
Keywords: Evaluation of communication strategies, Polio immunisation campaigns,
Kaduna and Sokoto States Nigeria
SSA, R (2021). An Evaluation Of Communication Strategies Used In Polio Immunization Campaigns In Kaduna And Sokoto States, Nigeria. Afribary.com: Retrieved May 08, 2021, from https://afribary.com/works/an-evaluation-of-communication-strategies-used-in-polio-immunization-campaigns-in-kaduna-and-sokoto-states-nigeria-2
Research, SSA. "An Evaluation Of Communication Strategies Used In Polio Immunization Campaigns In Kaduna And Sokoto States, Nigeria" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 12 Apr. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/an-evaluation-of-communication-strategies-used-in-polio-immunization-campaigns-in-kaduna-and-sokoto-states-nigeria-2 . Accessed 08 May. 2021.
Research, SSA. "An Evaluation Of Communication Strategies Used In Polio Immunization Campaigns In Kaduna And Sokoto States, Nigeria". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 12 Apr. 2021. Web. 08 May. 2021. < https://afribary.com/works/an-evaluation-of-communication-strategies-used-in-polio-immunization-campaigns-in-kaduna-and-sokoto-states-nigeria-2 >.
Research, SSA. "An Evaluation Of Communication Strategies Used In Polio Immunization Campaigns In Kaduna And Sokoto States, Nigeria" Afribary.com (2021). Accessed May 08, 2021. https://afribary.com/works/an-evaluation-of-communication-strategies-used-in-polio-immunization-campaigns-in-kaduna-and-sokoto-states-nigeria-2