AN OVERVIEW OF TUMOUR MARKERS

KENNETH IYEVHOBU 45 PAGES (9412 WORDS) Seminar
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ABSTRACT


Tumor Markers comprise a wide spectrum of biomacromolecules synthesized in excess concentration by a wide variety of neoplastic cells. The markers could be endogenous products of highly active metabolic malignant cells or the products of newly switched on genes, which remained unexpressed in early life or newly acquired antigens at cellular and sub-cellular levels. The appearance of tumor marker and their concentration are related to the genesis and growth of malignant tumors in patients. An ideal tumor marker should be highly sensitive, specific, reliable with high prognostic value, organ specificity and it should correlate with tumor stages. However, none of the tumor markers reported to date has all these characteristics. Inspite of these limitations, many tumor markers have shown excellent clinical relevance in monitoring efficacy of different modes of therapies during entire course of illness in cancer patients. Additionally, determination of markers also helps in early detection of cancer recurrence and in prognostication.



 


Table of content      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           v


List of Tables           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           vi


Abstract        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           vii


Chapter One


1.0       Introduction                        -           -           -           -           -           -           1


1.1       Definition of terms            -           -           -           -           -           -           3


Chapter Two


2.0       Classification of tumor markers            -           -           -           -           8


2.1       Uses of tumour markers   -           -           -           -           -           -           9


2.2       Examples of tumour markers     -           -           -           -           -           12


2.3       Determination of tumor marker in patient’s sera     -           -           15


2.4       The application of tumor markers         -           -           -           -           15


Chapter Three


3.0       Overview of tumour markers     -           -           -           -           -           17


3.1       Techniques for detecting tumour markers      -           -           -           23


3.2       Common cancers and associated tumour markers   -           -           24


3.3       Sensitivity and specificity of tumor markers  -           -           -           29


3.4       Determination of tumor markers          -           -           -           -           31


3.5       Biological factors that affect serum concentration of tumour


markers         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           32


Chapter Four


4.0       Sources of inaccuracy       -           -           -           -           -           -           34


4.1       When to check for tumor markers         -           -           -           -           34


4.2       Drawbacks of tumor markers     -           -           -           -           -           34


Chapter Five


5.0       Summary, conclusion and recommendation  -           -           -           36


5.1       Summary      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           36


5.2       Conclusion   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           36


5.3       Recommendation   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           39


References    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           40


 


LIST OF TABLES


Table I: Examples of tumour markers and associated tumour types- 12


Table II: Showing overview of tumour markers      -        -        -        17


Table III: The various tests used to detect tumour markers are shown   -           24


Table IV: Used for Early Detection / Follow-up / Screening         -           -           24


 


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APA

KENNETH, I (2019). AN OVERVIEW OF TUMOUR MARKERS. Afribary.com: Retrieved December 04, 2020, from https://afribary.com/works/an-overview-of-tumour-markers

MLA 8th

IYEVHOBU, KENNETH. "AN OVERVIEW OF TUMOUR MARKERS" Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 17 Aug. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/an-overview-of-tumour-markers . Accessed 04 Dec. 2020.

MLA7

IYEVHOBU, KENNETH. "AN OVERVIEW OF TUMOUR MARKERS". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 17 Aug. 2019. Web. 04 Dec. 2020. < https://afribary.com/works/an-overview-of-tumour-markers >.

Chicago

IYEVHOBU, KENNETH. "AN OVERVIEW OF TUMOUR MARKERS" Afribary.com (2019). Accessed December 04, 2020. https://afribary.com/works/an-overview-of-tumour-markers