Research Papers/Topics in Analytical Chemistry

Leachate, Groundwater, Surface Stream, Treated Water and Soil Characteristics of the Vicinity of a Municipal Solid Waste Dumpsite at Uyo Metropolis, Akwa – Ibom State, Nigeria.

Abstract These findings documented the physical, chemical and heavy metal contents in leachate, borehole water, surface stream, treated water and soil samples around the municipal solid waste dumpsite at Uyo metropolis, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria. Samples were collected during the wet and dry seasons 2010/2011. The samples were analysed for the following parameters: heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb), anions (PO3 4,SO2- 4,Cl- , NO3, NH+ 4-N), essential metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg), total disso...

Characterisation of the Compounds of the Ethylacetate Extract of the Leaves of Alstonia Boonei De Wild and Their Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potentials

ABSTRACT Dried and pulverised leaves of A. boonei De Wild (Apocynacea) were extracted using methanol for 48 h. The methanol extract obtained was defatted using n-hexane and fractionated using ethylacetate. The ethyl acetate fraction of the extract was subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) in silica gel using gradients of hexane-ethyl acetate. The VLC fractions were further separated on Sephadex LH-20. A total of 10 compounds were successfully isolated and purified using the reverse ...

Spectrophotometric Determination of Paracetamol Using Zirconium (Iv) Oxide and Ammonium Trioxovanadate (V)

ABSTRACT A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of paracetamol was explored, using zirconium(IV) and vanadium(V) oxides. The method was based on the oxidation of paracetamol by zirconium(IV) and vanadium(V) in alkaline and acidic media respectively. The stoichiometric studies indicated a mole-ratio of 1:1 for the reactions of paracetamol with both zirconium(IV) and vanadium(V). Effects of other variables like pH, temperature and time were determined and showed ...

Spectrophotometric Determination of Niacin, Thiamine, Glibenclamide, Erythromycin and Para Amino Benzoic Acid Using 2, 3 – Dichloro – 5, 6 – Dicyano – 1, 4 – Benzoquinone

ABSTRACT A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method is described for the assay of the drugs; niacin, glibenclamide, erythromycin, thiamine and 4-aminobenzoic acid. The method is based on charge transfer complexation (CT) reaction of niacin, glibenclamide, erythromycin, thiamine and 4-aminobenzoic acid as n-electron donors with 2,3- dichloro-5,6-dicyno-1,4-benzoquinone(DDQ) as л-electron acceptor in methanol. Intensely coloured charge transfer complexes with niacin (reddish brown, lmax ...

Chemical and Microbial Assessment of Ground and ·Surface Water Quality in Bwari Area Council, Abuja

ABSTRACT The Chemical and miCrobial assessment of water quality was investigated with a view to obtain a qualitative and quantitative information on the state of drinking water in Bwari Area Council of Abuja., which. is known for its poor sanitary conditions. Samples of water were collected from boreholes., wells and stream from selected sites and analyzed using standard methods of water analysis. The test result showed higher levels of Mn., Zn, Fe., and Ni in both ground and surface water.,...

Determination of Heavy Metals Levels in the Effluent Treatment Plant of Paint and Coating Industry in Nairobi County

ABSTRACT Industrialization and urbanization has increased tremendously in the last few years, especially in underdeveloped countries, such as Kenya. This has resulted in rising demand for certain aesthetic goods such as paints and coatings. Paint and coating industries use extensive raw materials in their manufacturing processes that consist of heavy metals, various solvents, and organic compounds. The wastewater released from these industries contains residual chemicals that are highly ...

Determination of Vanillin and its Adulterants in Consumer Ice cream using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography

AbstractThe paper focuses on the determination of the concentration of vanillin in six types of ice creams purchased from supermarkets Aldi and Sainsbury’s. Similar areas of research haven’t calculated the extraction efficiencies of their proposed methods. In addition to there being no extensive attempts to determine if any adulterants within the selected vanilla ice creams are present. 

An Assessment Of Ph, Toxic And Essential Plant Elements In Greywater From Selected Households In Kenyatta University, Kenya

Kenya is experiencing acute water shortage resulting to water rationing, conflict among water users, increased water prices among others. Therefore, there is need for water conservation. One of the water conservation methods available today is greywater reuse. Greywater is domestic wastewater generated from kitchens, bathrooms, and laundry activities. According to World Health Organization (WHO) each household in capital cities of most countries produces an average greywater flow of 356 litre...

Assessment Of The Levels Of Selected Skin Lightening Agents In Cosmetics Marketed In Mombasa County, Kenya

The practice of skin-lightening has reached epidemic levels in many nations around the globe, and especially in many African countries. In Kenya, the practice is common in major urban centres like Nairobi, Kisumu, Eldoret and Mombasa. The skin lightening cosmetics occur in various forms including topical creams, soaps and bleaching powders. Ingredients such as hydroquinone (HQ), mercury (Hg), arbutin (ART), kojic acid (KA), ascorbic acid (AA), magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP) are used in sk...

Health Risk Assessment Of Selected Essential And Non-Essential Elements In Food Crops Grown In Kibra Slum, Nairobi-Kenya

Peri-urban agriculture of food crops is practiced in many cities in developing countries, often involving the use of contaminated water and soils, thereby posing health risks for the consumers. Chemical pollutants such as metals present in minute quantities become part of the food chain through occupational exposure in industrial activities, biomagnification and bioaccumulation. In Nairobi City, peri-urban agriculture is practiced in many slum areas, including Kibra slum. Kibra slum, is a de...

Determination Of Levels Of Essential Elements, Lead And Lead Risk Exposure Factors In Adult Males Using Finger Nails And Scalp Hair

Essential elements are those elements which even in small amounts play important roles as far as healthy animal or plant life is concerned. Lead is a heavy metal with no known biological function in the body. Various biopsy materials for example teeth, scale, blood and other body fluids have for a long time been used to assess Pb exposure as well as the levels of essential elements in the body. Hair and nails are more attractive indicators since the analysis is economical and not susceptible ...

Zeolitic Materials From Rice Husks And Water Hyacinth For Removal Of Lead, Cadmium, Methylene Blue And Suspended Particles From Wastewater

ABSTRACT About 17.2 million people in Kenya have no access to clean water. The major factors contributing to lack of clean water include rapid population growth, droughts, forest degradation, poor management of water supply and water contamination. Lack of clean water may worsen as industrial development and population grows as projected if drastic measures are not taken immediately. Use of rice husks and water hyacinth that is known to contaminate and jam water bodies to create water treatm...

Clarification Of Colloidal And Suspended Material In Water Using Triethanolamine Modified Maize Tassels

ABSTRACT Suspended particles in water are a major concern in global pollution management. These particles are very small and are evenly distributed in the water. They originate from factors such as decomposing organic materials and algae. They are a significant factor in the water clarity, as they limit penetration of sunlight; provide a good environment for bacterial growth, contributing to fouling and unpleasant odours that compromise aesthetic appreciation of the water. They also complex ...

Effects Of Soil Amendments And Soil Physicochemical Properties On Cadmium And Lead Uptake In Tobacco Grown In Migori County, Kenya

ABSTRACT Tobacco is a heavy metal accumulator and it is estimated that 1.22 billion people are involved in smoking tobacco while about 1.45 billion people are predicted to be smoking it by 2045. Smoking tobacco results in 5 million premature deaths yearly as a result of tobacco related illness; with 70% of the deaths occurring in developing countries, Kenya included. Tobacco has heavy metals and carcinogens that make it a leading cause of deaths in the world. Tobacco easily uptakes heavy met...

Essential Trace Element Levels In Sesuvium Portulacastrum, Soil And Water Along Kwale County Coastline And Community Utilization Of The Plant

ABSTRACT Many underutilized indigenous foods contain high levels of essential trace elements some of which have immunological effect, and play important roles in many metabolic and enzymatic functions in man. Such elements include zinc, vanadium, selenium, chromium and iodine among others. If sustainably exploited, they would cost-effectively promote good health and thus reduce the medical bills. There is need therefore to analyze for these essential trace elements in foods, and especially t...


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