Analysis of Metabolite Compounds in Ruminants and their Contribution to Greenhouse Gas Emission

Abstract:

Ruminants such as cattle, goats, sheep, and camels host highly diverse microbial communities in their rumens that ferment fibrous plant materials to produce energy. However, this fermentation process also generates significant amounts of volatile organic compounds and greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, which are released into the environment through various excretion routes. The accumulation of these gases in the atmosphere contributes to global warming and climate change. To address this issue, it is important to understand the differences in rumen chemistry and microbial communities among various ruminant species and their impact on greenhouse gas production. In a recent study, rumen contents from cattle, sheep, goats, and camels were analyzed using Solid Phase Microextraction followed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to determine their metabolite composition, including their greenhouse gas emission contribution. The results revealed significant differences in rumen metabolites between ruminant species, both qualitatively and quantitatively. While certain compounds, such as p-cresol, camphor, skatole, α-pinene, and carbon dioxide, were found in all ruminants, others were unique to individual livestock species. Monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and hydrocarbons, contributed to the dissimilarity in metabolite compounds’ composition across all the species. Compared to grazers like cattle and sheep, browsers like goats and camels had similar volatile organic compound profiles, microbial populations, and greenhouse gas emission footprints. Cattle and sheep were found to have a relatively high carbon dioxide emission footprint compared to goats and camels. Additionally, Camels had relatively little carbon dioxide emission footprint which was ascribed to their low ruminal pH (6.5), therefore suggestive of CO2 emission inhibition by acids. The revealed variation of volatile metabolite compounds in livestock rumen plays an important role in GHG production through enteric fermentation. By understanding the metabolic pathways and microbial populations involved in rumen fermentation, it may be possible to design more sustainable management practices that reduce GHG emissions in livestock. This is particularly important given the growing global demand for livestock products and the contribution of enteric fermentation to overall agricultural GHG emissions.
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APA

Ochieng, O (2024). Analysis of Metabolite Compounds in Ruminants and their Contribution to Greenhouse Gas Emission. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/analysis-of-metabolite-compounds-in-ruminants-and-their-contribution-to-greenhouse-gas-emission

MLA 8th

Ochieng, Omondi "Analysis of Metabolite Compounds in Ruminants and their Contribution to Greenhouse Gas Emission" Afribary. Afribary, 27 Feb. 2024, https://afribary.com/works/analysis-of-metabolite-compounds-in-ruminants-and-their-contribution-to-greenhouse-gas-emission. Accessed 14 Jul. 2024.

MLA7

Ochieng, Omondi . "Analysis of Metabolite Compounds in Ruminants and their Contribution to Greenhouse Gas Emission". Afribary, Afribary, 27 Feb. 2024. Web. 14 Jul. 2024. < https://afribary.com/works/analysis-of-metabolite-compounds-in-ruminants-and-their-contribution-to-greenhouse-gas-emission >.

Chicago

Ochieng, Omondi . "Analysis of Metabolite Compounds in Ruminants and their Contribution to Greenhouse Gas Emission" Afribary (2024). Accessed July 14, 2024. https://afribary.com/works/analysis-of-metabolite-compounds-in-ruminants-and-their-contribution-to-greenhouse-gas-emission