Application of Modified Fmtlxlylz Dimensional Equation to Sludge Filtration using Sludge Drying Bed

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ABSTRACT

A natural filtration on sludge drying bed has resulted to a modified equation incorporating the compressibility coefficient. The equation was derived using the application of a modified FMTLXLYLZ dimensional analysis technique. The equation was validated using experimental data from a pilot scale sand drying bed and there was a close agreement between theory and experiment with a correlation coefficient ranging from 0.94 to 0.98. The experimental slope and intercept was found to be (1260913.48 s/m6 , 4872.53 s/m3 ) (5359604.57 s/m6 , 844882.56 s/m3 ), (112117050.4 s/m6 , -2135816.16 s/m3 ), and (145562880 s/m6 , -30497917.03 s/m3 ) while the theoretical values of slopes and intercepts are (1257426.75 s/m6 , 5270.26 s/m3 ),( 4579418.42 s/m6 , 905658.24 s/m3 ), (112117075 s/m6 , -21358166.74 s/m3 ),and (206699290.5 s/m6 , - 4589555.58 s/m3 ) respectively.


TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page i

 Certification ii

 Dedication iii

 Abstract iv

 Acknowledgment v

 List of Tables vi

 List of figures vii

 List of symbols viii

 Table of content ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Sludge and sand drying bed

1.2 Research Problem 2

1.3 Objective of project 2

1.4 Justification of project 2

1.5 Scope of study 3

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Sludge treatment process 4

2.1.1 Thickening 4

2.1.2 Stabilization 4

2.1.3 Conditioning 5

2.1.4 Disinfection 6

2.1.5 Dewatering 7

2.1.5.1 Vacuum filtration 7

2.1.5.2 Centrifuge 7

2.1.5.3 Belt filter press 8

2.1.5.4 Filter Press 8

2.1.5.5 Conventional sand drying bed 8

2.1.5.6 Paved drying bed 9

2.1.5.7 Artificial media drying beds 10

2.1.5.8 Vacuum-assisted drying bed 11

2.2 Drying 11

2.3 Definition of Terms 11

2.31 Specific Resistance 11

2.3.2 Compressibility coefficient 14

2.4 Limitation of Carman’s Equation 16

2.4.1 Variability of (R) during filtration process 17

2.4.2 The problem of variable hydrostatic head 17

2.4.3 Relationship between volume and time. 18

2.4.4 Relationship between volume and area of filtration 18

2.4.5 The concentration Term 18

2.4.6 Relationship between R and P 19

2.4.7 Area of filtration 19

2.5 Apparatus used in filtration experiment 19

2.6 Filtration Theories 21

2.6.1 Almy and Lewis (1912) 21

2.6.2 Sperry (1916) 21

2.6.3 Baker (1921) 22

2.6.4 Weber and Hershey (1926) 22

2.6.5 Carman (1934, 1938) 22

2.6.6 Ruth (1933, 1935) 23

2.6.7 Tiller (1953) 24

2.6.8 Grace (1953) 24

2.6.9 Rushton et al (1973) 25

2.6.10 Anazodo (1974) 25

2.6.11 Gale and White (1975) 26

2.6.12 Hemant (1981) 26

2.6.13 Ademiluyi jo , Anazodo and Egbuniwe (1982) 27

2.6.14 Ademiluyi (1984) 28

2.6.15 Ademiluyi et al (1982, 1987) 28

2.6.16 Agunwamba et al (1988) 29

2.6.17 Ademiluyi (1991) 30

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Study Area 31

3.2 Materials and Method 31

3.3 Dimensional analysis 33

3.4 Theory of Experiment 34

3.5 Method of evaluating filtration parameters 39

3.5.1 Initial solid content 39

3.5.2 The Area of filtration 39

3.5.3 The compressibility coefficient 39

3.5.4 Density of filtrate 39

3.5.5 Dynamic Viscosity 39

3.5.6 Weight of dry solid 40

3.5.7 Specific Resistance of sludge 40

3.5.8 Thickness of Dry sludge 40

3.5.9 Time of Filtration 40

3.5.10 Volume of Filtrate 40

3.5.11 Percentage of solid content expressed in decimal 40

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1 Experimental validation of equation 41

4.2 The Effect of chemical conditioning on the specific resistance 44

4.3 Variation of Initial solid content with specific resistance 47

4.4 Variation of Hydrostatic pressure with specific resistance 47

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 48

 REFERENCES 52

 APPENDIX I 57

 APPENDIX II 58

 APPENDIX III 67

 APPENDIX IV 74

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APA

Consults, E. & NDUBUEZE, N (2022). Application of Modified Fmtlxlylz Dimensional Equation to Sludge Filtration using Sludge Drying Bed. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/application-of-modified-fmtlxlylz-dimensional-equation-to-sludge-filtration-using-sludge-drying-bed

MLA 8th

Consults, Education, and NNOROM NDUBUEZE "Application of Modified Fmtlxlylz Dimensional Equation to Sludge Filtration using Sludge Drying Bed" Afribary. Afribary, 09 Nov. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/application-of-modified-fmtlxlylz-dimensional-equation-to-sludge-filtration-using-sludge-drying-bed. Accessed 07 Dec. 2022.

MLA7

Consults, Education, and NNOROM NDUBUEZE . "Application of Modified Fmtlxlylz Dimensional Equation to Sludge Filtration using Sludge Drying Bed". Afribary, Afribary, 09 Nov. 2022. Web. 07 Dec. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/application-of-modified-fmtlxlylz-dimensional-equation-to-sludge-filtration-using-sludge-drying-bed >.

Chicago

Consults, Education and NDUBUEZE, NNOROM . "Application of Modified Fmtlxlylz Dimensional Equation to Sludge Filtration using Sludge Drying Bed" Afribary (2022). Accessed December 07, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/application-of-modified-fmtlxlylz-dimensional-equation-to-sludge-filtration-using-sludge-drying-bed