Assessment of Percentage Chemicals Present in Apple Peel and Apple Flesh in Exotic Apple Fruits From Selected Markets in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page………………………………………………………………………………..i

Declaration………………………………………………………………………...........ii

Certification……………………………………………………………………..……...iii

Dedication……………………………………………………………………………....iv

Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………............v

Table of content………………………………………………………………...……....vii

Abstract………………………………………………………………………………….viii

1.0  INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………….………..1

 1.1 Statement of the problem……………………………………….…………………...4

 1.2 Justification of the study………………………………………………..……............5

1.3 Research questions………………………………………………….……….………..6

1.4 Aim and objectives……………………………………………………………............7

1.5 Research hypothesis…………………………………………………..…………….....7

2.0  LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………………………………...........7

3.0  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………....……...........22

3.1 Description of area of study……………………………………………………….…..22

3.2 Sample collection………………………………………………..……………….........23

3.4 Sample preparation………………………………………………………………….....24

3.5 Sample analysis……………………………………………………………………...…28

4.0  RESULT AND DISCUSSION……………………………………….……………...…29

5.0  CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION…………………………...................…40

5.1 References……………………………………………………………………………....43

5.2 Appendices…………………………………………………………………………….. 45


 

ABSTRACT

Global production of apples is extremely high as its demands increased yearly, to meet this demand, the grower and marketer ensure that they maintain the quality of apple after harvest, during storage and delivery by using preservatives. This research provides information about the types and levels of chemical preservatives contained in exotic apple fruits being sold in Nigerian markets. Two different samples of apple (red and lemon) were bought from Oja-Oba market in Ilorin, Kwara State for analysis. The apples were peeled separately and juice was extracted using the fruit juice extractor.  Analysis of the juices from the peel and fleshy part of the apple were carried out using n-Hexane and GCMS (Gas chromatography Mass Spectrophotometer). Out of seventeen chemicals identified in the juice from apple flesh, two chemicals were pronounced with high composition which are 3a, 4, 5, 6, 7, 7a-hexahydro-4,7-methanoindene (17.65%), hydroxymethylfurfural (11.76%), from the apple peels, two major chemicals were identified in apple peels which are  2,4 dihydroxy 2, 5- dimethyl-3 (2H)- furan-3-one(50%) and dodecane (150%). Chemical preservatives in fruit make consumers to be at risk of chemical ingestion, and revealed the presence and concentration of chemical preservatives in fruit that make consumers to be at risk of chemical ingestion. From the seventeen chemical preservatives identified in the apples samples, three chemicals were identified as beneficial which are basically used for apple wax while the other three pose less threat to health and the environment.

Key words: Apple, Peel, Juice, Chemical. 

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APA

Frontiers, E. & ALAO, R (2021). Assessment of Percentage Chemicals Present in Apple Peel and Apple Flesh in Exotic Apple Fruits From Selected Markets in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/assessment-of-percentage-chemicals-present-in-apple-peel-and-apple-flesh-in-exotic-apple-fruits-from-selected-markets-in-ilorin-kwara-state-nigeria

MLA 8th

Frontiers, Edu, and Rahmat ALAO "Assessment of Percentage Chemicals Present in Apple Peel and Apple Flesh in Exotic Apple Fruits From Selected Markets in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria." Afribary. Afribary, 18 Dec. 2021, https://afribary.com/works/assessment-of-percentage-chemicals-present-in-apple-peel-and-apple-flesh-in-exotic-apple-fruits-from-selected-markets-in-ilorin-kwara-state-nigeria. Accessed 20 Jan. 2022.

MLA7

Frontiers, Edu, and Rahmat ALAO . "Assessment of Percentage Chemicals Present in Apple Peel and Apple Flesh in Exotic Apple Fruits From Selected Markets in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.". Afribary, Afribary, 18 Dec. 2021. Web. 20 Jan. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/assessment-of-percentage-chemicals-present-in-apple-peel-and-apple-flesh-in-exotic-apple-fruits-from-selected-markets-in-ilorin-kwara-state-nigeria >.

Chicago

Frontiers, Edu and ALAO, Rahmat . "Assessment of Percentage Chemicals Present in Apple Peel and Apple Flesh in Exotic Apple Fruits From Selected Markets in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria." Afribary (2021). Accessed January 20, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/assessment-of-percentage-chemicals-present-in-apple-peel-and-apple-flesh-in-exotic-apple-fruits-from-selected-markets-in-ilorin-kwara-state-nigeria