ASSESSMENT OF RADIATION PROTECTION MEASURES IN RADIOLOGY DEPARTMENTS OF HOSPITALS IN KOGI STATE

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ABSTRACT
This research was carried out to assess the radiation protection measures in Radiology Departments of Hospitals in Kogi State. The study was carried out to ascertain the radiation protection measures adopted in Kogi State as it has never been done before by any researcher.
The research method used is the survey mode carried out through questionnaire. It was a prospective study that covered five (5) hospitals and they include: Federal Medical Centre (FMC) Lokoja, Kogi State Specialist Hospital (KSSH) Lokoja, Kogi State Diagnostic Hospital (KSDH) Anyigba, Grimard Hospital (GH) Anyigba and Maria Goretti Hospital (MGH) Anyigba, all in Kogi State. A convenient sampling size was used for this research.
The indices used were provision of radiation protection devices and personnel monitoring devices, room design, repeat cases, quality assurance (QA) test.
Data was presented and analyzed with frequency and percentage tables. The result of this research showed that radiation protection is poor and there is urgent need to address it and improve on the standard of practice. Only KSSH Lokoja was provided with gonad shield, thus the only hospital to have all the radiation protection devices. It is evident from the research that most of the diagnostic rooms (66.67%) were modified and not custom made. 
Only 55% Radiographers (in FMC Lokoja) were provided with personnel monitoring device. 
By and large, FMC and KSSH show better radiation protection practices than KSDH, GH and MGH.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Approval page ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledegment v
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables ix
List of Figures x
Abstract xi

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 introduction 1
1.1 Statement of Problems 2
1.2 Objectives of Study 3
1.3 Significance of Study 3
1.4 Scope of Study 3
1.5 Definition of Terms 3

CHAPTER TWO
2.1 Literature Review 7
2.2 Theoretical Background 20
2.3 Types of Radiation 21
2.4 Radiation Dose 23
2.4.1 Measurement of Radiation 24
2.5 Biological Effects of Radiation 25
2.5.1 Stochastic Effects 25
2.5.2 Non-Stochastic Effects 27
2.6 X-Ray Interaction with the Cell 28
2.7 Basic Principles of Radiation Protection 29
2.7.1 Time 29
2.7.2 Distance 30
2.7.3 Shielding 31
2.8 Radiation Protection Practices 32

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Research Methodology 35
3.1 Research Design 35
3.2 Target Population 35
3.3 Sample Size 35
3.4 Data Collection Instrument 36
3.5 Method of Data Collection 36

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis 38

CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 Discussion 49
5.2 Summary of Findings
5.3 Recommendations 54
5.4 Conclusion 55
5.5 Limitations of Study 55
5.6 Area of further Study 55
References
Appendix

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1: Showing the designated occupational limits in Canada 17
Table 4.1: Gender/frequency distribution of Radiographers in Kogi State Hospitals 38
Table 4.2: Age group of Radiographers in Kogi State 39
Table 4.3: Availability of Radiation protection devices in Kogi State Hospitals 40
Table 4.4: Assessing all the Radiographer in Kogi State on how often they give lead aprons to patient assistants 41
Table 4.5: Assessing the room designs of the diagnostic rooms 42
Table 4.6: Distribution for assessing if the department is originally designed as a radiology department 43
Table 4.7: Responses of every Radiographer on how long their patients stay in the waiting area 44
Table 4.8: Provision of monitoring devices for radiographers in Kogi State Hospitals 45
Table 4.9: Assessing Kogi State Radiographers on how often they encounter repeat cases while working 46
Table 4.10: Distribution of Radiographers’ responses on the causes of repeat exposures 47
Table 4.11: Quality Assurance test in Kogi State Hospitals 48

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1: The trefoil symbol for warning sign 18
Figure 2.2: The distance principle of radiation protection 31

INTRODUCTION.
The discovery of x-rays on November 8 by Professor W. C. Roentgen, a German physicist, gave rise to radiation medicine. Immediately after the discovery, ionizing radiation became a very useful tool in diagnostic medicine.
Electromagnetic (EM) radiation includes visible light, radio waves, microwaves, cosmic radiation and several other varieties of rays. X-rays are of short wavelength, and high frequency EM radiation. High frequency means, high energy and operate at energy level of ionizing radiation.1 
Ionizing radiation is widely used in medicine and industries, and it presents a significant health hazard. The hazards of X-rays were reported few months after its discovery and it was later confirmed that X-rays have deleterious biological effects. It also causes microscopic damage to living tissues, resulting in skin burn and radiation sickness at high exposures and statistically elevated risk of cancer at low exposures. Examples of these effects are; dermatitis, alopecia, chronic ulceration, genetic effects. When patients undergo x-ray examinations, millions of photons pass through their bodies. These can damage any molecule by ionization, but damage to the DNA in the chromosome is of particular importance.2 
The realization of these harmful effects has given rise to radiation protection practices. Radiation protection sometimes known as radiological protection is the protection of people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation and high energy electromagnetic radiation. Radiation protection aims at the protection of individuals, their descendants and the human race in the environment against the potential risk of ionizing radiation.3
The harmful effects of ionizing radiation can be reduced through the filtration of x-ray beam, collimation/field size trimming, biological shielding like the use of lead apron, gonad shield, wall lead-lining which has to do with the room design. 
The basic principles of radiation protection in every radiological department are time, distance and shielding. Personnel radiation monitoring is also a good measure of radiation protection which helps in measuring the radiation received by radiation workers. This involves the use of film badges, ionization chamber and thermoluminiscent dosimeter (TLD).
In as much as there are hazardous effects, ionizing radiation is of tremendous importance as it plays a useful role in medical imaging. Medical imaging procedures, which are used to view different areas inside the human body, can provide physicians with important clinical information. Imaging examinations can allow for non-invasive diagnosis of disease and monitoring of therapy, and can support medical and surgical treatment planning.4
Furthermore, this project is concentrated on the assessment of radiation protection in radiology department of hospitals in Kogi State.
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APA

Ugwu, A. (2018). ASSESSMENT OF RADIATION PROTECTION MEASURES IN RADIOLOGY DEPARTMENTS OF HOSPITALS IN KOGI STATE. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/assessment-of-radiation-protection-measures-in-radiology-departments-of-hospitals-in-kogi-state-1181

MLA 8th

Ugwu, Anderson "ASSESSMENT OF RADIATION PROTECTION MEASURES IN RADIOLOGY DEPARTMENTS OF HOSPITALS IN KOGI STATE" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/assessment-of-radiation-protection-measures-in-radiology-departments-of-hospitals-in-kogi-state-1181. Accessed 08 Feb. 2023.

MLA7

Ugwu, Anderson . "ASSESSMENT OF RADIATION PROTECTION MEASURES IN RADIOLOGY DEPARTMENTS OF HOSPITALS IN KOGI STATE". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 08 Feb. 2023. < https://afribary.com/works/assessment-of-radiation-protection-measures-in-radiology-departments-of-hospitals-in-kogi-state-1181 >.

Chicago

Ugwu, Anderson . "ASSESSMENT OF RADIATION PROTECTION MEASURES IN RADIOLOGY DEPARTMENTS OF HOSPITALS IN KOGI STATE" Afribary (2018). Accessed February 08, 2023. https://afribary.com/works/assessment-of-radiation-protection-measures-in-radiology-departments-of-hospitals-in-kogi-state-1181