Aim: to assess the knowledge, perception and attitude of radiographers in UNTH towards radiography role extension.
Method: 24 radiographers (88.89%return rate) working in the hospital were studied. The study was structured such that each section of the study is related to specific objectives of the study which are: To obtain more literature or information on the knowledge, perception and attitude of Nigeria radiographers towards radiography role extension and to ascertain the knowledge, attitude and perception of radiographer under study on radiograph role extension.
Result: very good number of the respondent agreed they have good knowledge on what radiography role extension is all about. Most of the respondents also stated that they have fair and poor knowledge on radiographers being allowed to perform some role extension like administration of contrast media and reporting of radiographer films.
Conclusion: most respondents were in favour of radiography role extension through their attitude, perception and knowledge towards it. Standardization and accredited training including education on the media-legal coverage available to them may be needed to ally their concerns and adequately prepare them on this extended roles. Relevant bodies should support radiography role extension for efficient and effective radiology services in the hospital.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents---------vi
List of tables----------ix
List of figures----------x
CHAPTER ONE: Introduction------1
1.2 Statement of problems -------6
1.3 Purpose of study--------6
1.4 significance of study-------7
1.5 scope of study--------7
1.6 Literature review--------7
2.1 evidence from the profession -----16
2.3 Radiographers administering intravenous injections-18
2.4 Radiographers prescribing------19
2.5 Gastro-intestinal Radiography-----20
2.8 Nuclear Medicine--------22
2.10 Radiographer led treatment review and assessment clinics--------24
2.11 Radiotherapy site specialism------24
2.12 Counselling ---------25
2.13 Macmillan Radiographers------25
2.14 Research radiographers and clinic trials co-ordination ------- 25
3.1 Research methodology -------26
3.1.1 Research Design-------26
3.1.2 Target population-------26
3.1.3 Duration of study-------26
3.1.4 Duration of Study-------26
3.2 Method of date collection -----26
3.2.1 sources of date collection-----26
3.2.2 Instrument of Data Collection-----27
3.3 Procedure for Date collection-----27
4.1 Date analysis---------28
5.0 Discussion, Summary, Conclusion and
5.1 Discussion ----------41
5.2 Summary of findings -------43
5.3 Conclusion ---------46
5.4 Recommendation --------46
5.5 Limitation of the study-------47
LIST OF TABLES
1. Sex distribution of radiographer
2. Hierarchy distribution of radiographer
4. Lave of knowledge of radiographers on Radiographer lore extension
5. Level of knowledge of respondents on radiographers
6. Level and knowledge of respondent on radiographer performing mage reporting
7. Attitudes of the respondent on radiography role extension
8. Perception of radiographers on rad radiography role extension
LIST OF FIGURES
I. Pie chart for that specific role extension that respondent had participated in
ii Pie chart of the reason why some radiographs never participated in rad role extension
iii Pie chart of improve effort made by some radiographers to improve rad role extension
iv Pie chart of reasons why some radiographers wished to instensiogy their effort towards and role extension
V Pie chart of the reason why all respondant think that lack of role extansion is affecting health care delivery to patent
vi Pie chart represented of what is in mind of the respondent about radiographers role extension
Role extension in radiography is development of the traditional role of the radiographer1. This occurs when radiographers take on certain roles and/ or responsibilities previously undertake by other healthcare professionals’ e.g. nursed and radiologists. Radiographer role extension can come about due to a shortage of radiological procedure2. It has been reported that the royal college of radiologist and the college of radiographers have both acknowledge inevitable. This was demonstrated when royal college off radiologist and college of radiographers issued a joint document detailing skills- mix roles in radiology and the importance of working as a healthcare team. The dire shortage of radiologists3, coupled with high demands for health services in Africa, requires that the attitude, perception and knowledge of health professionals especially the radiographers towards role extension should be of world class standard.
Attitude according to the sixth edition of the oxford Advanced learners dictionary of current English is defined as the way that one think and feel about somebody /something that show how he think and feel4.
Radiographers have responded to the current changing needs of the service and have extended their scone of practice in recent years to take account of the adversity and complexity of health care. In the last one or two decades, the attitude and scope of practice for radiographers towards role development has moved towards apace Radiographers have sized role document opportunities within the modern health care environment and now undertaken new responsibilities in area of diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy. Most radiography profession regulatory bodies like the society and college of Radiographers, United Kingdom have encouraged and supported radiographers to extension their scope of practice and it is anticipated that the evolving service will continue to in to provide opportunities for further development in the further.
Meanwhile, countries abroad, led by the United Kingdom (U.K), improved their service delivery through practice of radiography role extension5. Radiography role extension role extension such as image interpretation, administration of pivotal, integral and imperative in the process of addressing health care needs in Nigeria end Africa.
The attitude of radiographers toward radiography role extension, especially image reporting, is a well documented topic and has led to positive changes within the health care system in the united kingdom6.
The Nigeria health care system can only experience similar changes if and when radiographers embrace positive attitude and start to actively get involved in researching their current practice and identifying areas of possible development.
Perception from Latin word perceptio is the organization and interpretation of sensory information in order of transduction which sense in the body, transform signals from the environment into encoded neural signal7.
According to knolb perception is divided into apprehension and comprehension. He concluded that what is perceived can be transformed into knowledge in two different ways: either by reflection observation (as an introvert process) or as active experimentation (as a more extrovert process)8.
Developing practice in the perception of most developed countries means that the existing roles most be re-evaluated and present skill fully utilized and further develop. The college and society of radiography role extension and have issued a joint document detailing inter professional roles, importance of delegation9. This their perception towards radiography role development calls for change that demands high level of training, expertise and experience, all of which may provide job satisfaction and increase motivation. They also perceive role development in radiography as an agent of skill mix which will encourage more of a “team approach” within health care practice affording the radiography profession greater respect for medical colleagues.
However, complacency within the African radiography projection has deterred professional development resulting in the role of radiographer still primarily being viewed as technical10
Knowledge according to the sixth edition of the oxford Advanced learners dictionary of current English is defined as the information, understanding and skills that one gain through education or experience or the state of knowing about a particular11
Knolb also stated that knowledge is created through transformation of experience8. It is generally known and accepted that role development are new types of activates which were not part of traditional role of radiographer (and perhaps used to be done by others especially radiologist, oncologist or physicists) and that are changing the boundaries of practice. It also known that in medical imaging department, role extension has been impacted upon by the continual development of technology and changes to healthcare delivery, thereby bordering the boundaries of roles required in diagnosis12
However, the greater contribution to health care provision and increased knowledge and personal development, there comes an increased profession responsibility and legal liability to achieve and maintain acceptable standard of clinical care.
An issue that must be addressed in relation to attitude, perception and knowledge of radiographers toward role development include: appropriate training and assessment of competence, departmental protocols, allocation of responsibilities, cost effectiveness and performance monitoring.
Across the globe, main areas of role development in radiography profession that demands positive attitude, high knowledge and good perception of radiographer are:
a.In the areas of Gastro-intestinal tract investigation for instance:
i.Radiographers can now be allowed to perform barium studies13
ii.Using ultrasound e.g. general diagnostic ultrasound. Obstetrics and Gynaecology
b.intravenous injection of contrast media in those cases involving IVU, CT, under medicine
c.Reporting of images14 such as skeletal, ultrasound, CT, nuclear medicine and mammography
d.Angiography e.g. peripheral angiograms
Meanwhile in Africa at large and Nigeria in particular not much research has been carried to ascertain the knowledge, perception and attitude of radiographers toward role development, and also not very much role development has taken place in radiography profession in the country unlike united kingdom that have improved her health care service delivery through their radiographers’ attitude, knowledge and perception to the introduction of radiography role extension5.
Therefore, lack of research in Nigeria to support good attitude, knowledge and perception or radiographers for extended role in radiography is a deafening silence contrasted by the loud healthcare needs for such roles. This study set outs to ascertain the current knowledge, attitude and perception of radiographer’s towards radiography role extension. It aims to obtain more information or literature support on the knowledge, attitude and perception of radiographer’s under study towards radiography role extension, using questionnaire method of date collection.
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