Assessment Of The Level Of Hygiene Practice In Ultrasound Laboratotries In Enugu Metropolis

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ABSTRACT
The specific objective of this study was to evaluate the standard of cleanliness of intracavitory transducers by Sonographers in Enugu; the exposure to infectious diseases and the specific regulatory guidelines for infection control in ultrasound laboratory.The research was a non-experimental cross sectional study. The sample size was 46 sonographers. The primary source of data was questionnaire. The result shows that 43.48% of  Sonographers clean their intracavitory ultrasound transducer at the end of the all the investigation. 15.22% of the sonographers said they clean their intracavitory transducers only when they are soiled. From this findings, the result shows  that 26.09%  sonographers  agreed that there is availability of specific regulatory guidelines for infection control in ultrasound laboratory while the remaining 73.91% of sonographers said that there is no specific regulatory guidelines for infection control in ultrasound laboratory .
This study showed that 26.09% of the sonographers had contacted an infection such as upper respiratory tract infection, tuberculosis, measles e.t.c. 30.43% said they are not sure if they have contacted infections. There should be need for appropriate authorities to constantly monitor and sensitize sonographers on the need to adopt and adhere to the universal precautionary measures for infection control in ultrasound laboratories.

TABLE  OF CONTENT
Title page - - - - - - - - - - i
Certification - - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - v
Approval Page - - - - - - - - - vi
Table content - - - - - - - - - vii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study - - - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of Problem - - - - - - - 4
1.3 Objective of the Study - - - - - - - 4
1.4 Significance of Study - - - - - - - 4
1.5    Scope of Study - - - - - - - - 5

CHAPTER   TWO
2.1      Review of Literature - - - - - - - 6
2.1.1   Acquired Infections - - - - - - - 6
2.1.2    Hygiene and Infection - - - - - - - 9
2.1.3     Transmission of Infections in Laboratory - - - - 10
2.2    Control   of  Infection  Principles - - - - - 12
2.3 Basic Hygiene Techniques  in Ultrasound practices - - - 14

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0    Design of  the Study - - - - - - - 16
3.1   Population of  study - - - - - - - - 16
3.2   Sample size and sampling method - - - - - 16
3.3   Sources of Data - - - - - - - - 16
3.4   Method of Data collection - - - - - - - 17
3.5    Data Analysis and Presentation - - - - - - 18

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0   Discussion - - - - - - - - - 26
4.1     Summary of Findings - - - - - - - 30
4.2   Conclusion - - - - - - - - - 31
4.3   Recommendations - - - - - - - - 31
4.4   Areas of Further Research - - - - - - 32
4.5   Limitations of the Study - - - - - - - 32
References - - - - - - - - - 33
                                             

INTRODUCTION
The practice of hygiene is a process which we cannot overlook as far as health is concerned because hygiene is a science of health and it is of paramount importance in our everyday life. Hygiene is defined as a set of practices perceived by a community to be associated with the preservation of health and healthy living, while in modern medical sciences there is a set of standards of hygiene recommended for different situations. Hygiene refers as the science of health or the act of keeping yourself and the surrounding clean in attempt to prevent infection and diseases. Hygiene practices are employed as a preventative measures to reduce the incidence and spreading of diseases and it determines the extent one can live comfortably without infection or sickness.
Hospital is a place for bread of agents that causes infections and diseases which ultrasound room is not an exception. Therefore maximum medical hygiene practices should be considered as a very important factor for patient’s safety, sonographers and other health assistants. Patients should be protected from cross-infections. The sonographers and other health assistants should also be protected from acquiring infections as a result of poor hygiene. 
Good hospital hygiene practice is vital to any strategy for preventing HealthCare Associated Infections(HCAI) in hospitals. They are based on cleaning the general hospital environment, training of staff, Cleaning items of shared equipment. 
Association between poor environmental hygiene and the transmission of micro organisms causing HealthCare Associated Infections in hospital should be call to attention. The NHS Code of practice on the prevention and control of HealthCare Associated Infection which came into effect in October 2006  was developed to help Organisations to plan and implement strategies for the prevention and control of  HCAIs. It set out criteria by which managers on NHS organizations and other healthcare providers should ensure patients are cared for in a clean environment, where the risk of HCAIs is kept as low as possible.
   Transmission of micro organisms from the environment to patients may occur through direct contact with contaminated equipments or indirectly as a result of torching by hands. Nevertheless, the evidence that pathogens responsible for HCAIs can be widely found in the hospital environment and hence readily acquired on hands by touching surfaces does demonstrate the importance of decontaminating hands before every patient contact.
    Shared clinical equipment used to deliver care in the clinical environment comes into contact with intact skin and is therefore unlikely to introduce infections. However, it can act as a vehicle by which micro organisms are transferred between patients through the use of non invasive clinical equipments including Stethoscope, lifting equipments and ultrasound probes
    Staff education was lacking on optimal cleaning practice in the clinical areas. Knowledge  deficits may hinder the application of cleaning practices and monitoring and evaluation was indicated. This is further reinforced by an observation study, which noted that lapses in adhering to cleaning protocol were linked with an increase in environmental contamination.
Medical hygiene practices include: sterilization of instruments used in ultrasound rooms, use of protective clothing and barriers, such as gowns and gloves, safe disposal of medical waste, disinfection of reusables scrubbing up hand-washing especially in ultrasound rooms.
It is obvious that successful prevention, control and elimination of cross-infection of disease in ultrasound centres is greatly dependent on observance of proper and effective hygiene practice.
This research will access and make known the level of hygienic practices in ultrasound centres in Enugu metropolis to prove if the level is adequate or inadequate. In this effect, it will be of good evidence which will help to enhance the level of hygiene practices in ultrasound centres.

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APA

Ugwu, A. (2018). Assessment Of The Level Of Hygiene Practice In Ultrasound Laboratotries In Enugu Metropolis. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/assessment-of-the-level-of-hygiene-practice-in-ultrasound-laboratotries-in-enugu-metropolis-493

MLA 8th

Ugwu, Anderson "Assessment Of The Level Of Hygiene Practice In Ultrasound Laboratotries In Enugu Metropolis" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/assessment-of-the-level-of-hygiene-practice-in-ultrasound-laboratotries-in-enugu-metropolis-493. Accessed 10 Aug. 2022.

MLA7

Ugwu, Anderson . "Assessment Of The Level Of Hygiene Practice In Ultrasound Laboratotries In Enugu Metropolis". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 10 Aug. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/assessment-of-the-level-of-hygiene-practice-in-ultrasound-laboratotries-in-enugu-metropolis-493 >.

Chicago

Ugwu, Anderson . "Assessment Of The Level Of Hygiene Practice In Ultrasound Laboratotries In Enugu Metropolis" Afribary (2018). Accessed August 10, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/assessment-of-the-level-of-hygiene-practice-in-ultrasound-laboratotries-in-enugu-metropolis-493