Assessment of tick infestation and its effect in small ruminants production in Paikoro Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria.

Ibrahim Idris Adamu 37 PAGES (7669 WORDS) Project
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ABSTRACT

The study was conducted from 15th April to 30th June 2019 in Paikoro Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria, with the objectives of assessment of ticks’ infestation and its effects in small ruminants’ production and identifying the major risk factors such as species, sex, age and body conditioned scored. A total of 320 small ruminants were sampled, out of which 67.19% of the animals (83.8% sheep and 50.6% goats) were found to be infested with one or more of tick species. The most abundant species found in the study area were Amblyomma variegatum 59(18.4%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi 70(21.9%), Boophilus decoloratus 40(12.5%), whereas, Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum 36(11.3%), Rhipicephalus pulchellus 26(8.1%). Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum and Rhipicephalus pulchellus were the minor species of tick observed on goats and none in sheep were recorded in the study area. The difference in the prevalence of tick infestation between species and age was statistically significant (X2=7.89, df=1, P<0.05) and (X2=17.54, df=2, P<0.05) respectively. But sex and body conditioned scored were not statistically significant (P> 0.05). The adult male ticks were more prevalence than the number of adult female ticks except for Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi and Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum the reverse was true. This high prevalence in tick infestation becomes a threat to small ruminants production in the study area and this would necessitate urgent preventives and control measures by treating all infected animal, provision of good hygiene in the animals pens and regular spraying of acaricides, regular pasture management, restricting animals movements to infested areas and provision of veterinary services should be present in the study area.

Key words: Small Ruminant, Infestation, Tick, Prevalence, Paikoro.

 

 

 

 

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title page------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- i

Certification-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ii

Dedication--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- iii

Acknowledgements------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ iv

Abstract------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- v

Table of contents-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- vi

List of table---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------vii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1

1.1 Background of the study---------------------------------------------------------------------------------1

1.2 Aim --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2

1.3 Specific objectives---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

2.1 Ixidida tick (Hard tick)---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

2.2 Ixodida life cycle----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3

2.3 Small ruminants production-----------------------------------------------------------------------------4

2.4.0 Tick genera--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4

2.4.1 Rhipicephalus------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 4

2.4.2 Amblyomma-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

2.4.3 Hyalomma--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5

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2.4.4 Other group of tick----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6

2.5.0 Veterinary importance of ticks--------------------------------------------------------------------- 6

2.5.1 Direct chemical manifestation of ticks infestation---------------------------------------------- 7

2.6 Diseases transmitted by tick vector----------------------------------------------------------------- 8

2.7.0 Treatment of tick infestation------------------------------------------------------------------------ 8

2.7.1 Vaccination against ticks microbes---------------------------------------------------------------- 8

2.8 Population control measures------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS----------------------------------------------------------------- 10

3.1 Study location--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11

3.2 Sampling population and sampling methods---------------------------------------------------- 11

3.3 Study design and sampling determination------------------------------------------------------ 11

3.4 Parasitological procedure----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11

3.5 Data management and analysis---------------------------------------------------------------- 12

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 RESULTS--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 DISCUSSION, CONCLUSSION AND RECOMMENDATION---------------------------- 17

5.1 Discussion------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17

5.2 Conclusion and Recommendation---------------------------------------------------------------- 18

REFERENCES------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 20

 

 

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Prevalence of tick infestation based on species, sex, age and body condition scored (BCS)------------------------------------------------ ---------------------------------------------------13

Table 2: Prevalence of tick genera in Paikoro Local Government Area, Niger State. ----------- 14

Table 3: Distribution of tick species in Paikoro Local Government Area, Niger State. ----------15

Table 4: Total adult tick species and sex ratio in the study area. ---------------------------------- 16

 

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Percentage of tick infestation based on species, sex, age and body condition scored. -14           

Figure 2: Overall percentage p;revalence of tick species in Paikoro Local Government Area. - 15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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APA

Ibrahim, I (2019). Assessment of tick infestation and its effect in small ruminants production in Paikoro Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria.. Afribary.com: Retrieved October 20, 2019, from https://afribary.com/works/assessment-of-tick-infestation-and-its-effect-in-small-ruminants-production-in-paikoro-local-government-area-of-niger-state-nigeria

MLA 8th

Idris Adamu, Ibrahim. "Assessment of tick infestation and its effect in small ruminants production in Paikoro Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria." Afribary.com. Afribary.com, 05 Jul. 2019, https://afribary.com/works/assessment-of-tick-infestation-and-its-effect-in-small-ruminants-production-in-paikoro-local-government-area-of-niger-state-nigeria . Accessed 20 Oct. 2019.

MLA7

Idris Adamu, Ibrahim. "Assessment of tick infestation and its effect in small ruminants production in Paikoro Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria.". Afribary.com, Afribary.com, 05 Jul. 2019. Web. 20 Oct. 2019. < https://afribary.com/works/assessment-of-tick-infestation-and-its-effect-in-small-ruminants-production-in-paikoro-local-government-area-of-niger-state-nigeria >.

Chicago

Idris Adamu, Ibrahim. "Assessment of tick infestation and its effect in small ruminants production in Paikoro Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria." Afribary.com (2019). Accessed October 20, 2019. https://afribary.com/works/assessment-of-tick-infestation-and-its-effect-in-small-ruminants-production-in-paikoro-local-government-area-of-niger-state-nigeria