Biochemical Changes In Malaria Episodes

Ezunagu Michael 35 PAGES (6437 WORDS) Seminar
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Antioxidants are one of the important components which plays a critical role to maintain the cell functioning and integrity of the cells. Antioxidants play an important role against the reactive oxygen species and maintain the normal activity of the cell. Free radicals on the other hand are very damaging to the living system, the production of free radicals takes place while there is lack of equilibrium between pro-oxidant and the antioxidant defense system, due to which, the patho-physiological processes leading to cellular toxicity cause variety of disorders, including degenerative disorders of the central nervous system such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and initiation of carcinogenesis. Antioxidants are preventing the free radical configuration tissue damage by preventing the formation of radicals or promoting their breakdown of free radical species. They make use of mechanisms such as the endogenous mechanism, metal binding protein and dietary antioxidants mechanism, in the past and present years, progress has been made in the recognition and understanding of the roles of reactive oxygen species in many diseases.  Protein-bound thiol and non-protein-thiol are the major cytosolic low molecular weight sulfhydryl compound that acts as a cellular reducing and a protective reagent against numerous toxic substances. The body protects itself from the potential damages of reactive oxygen species, by utilizing antioxidant enzymes and non-antioxidant enzymes e.g superoxide dismutases, glutathione peroxidases, catalase e.t.c. Scientists have indicated that antioxidant obtained from daily diets such as non-enzymatic antioxidants vitamin E, vitamin C, carotenoids and polyphenols can scavenge the reactive oxygen species. These compounds may also be required as cofactors for antioxidant enzymes or be used by cells for up-regulating enzymatic antioxidants. This work was reviewed to obtain more knowledge about the biochemical roles of Antioxidants in the living system.


Cover page 

Title page i

Declaration ii

Certification iii

Dedication iv

Acknowledgement v

Abstract vi

Table of contents vii

List of Tables ix

List of Figures x

1.0 Introduction 1

2.0 Antioxidants 3

2.1 Classification of Antioxidants

2.1.1 Natural Antioxidants 4

2.1.2 Synthetic antioxidants 6

2.2 Mechanism Of Action Of Antioxidants 10

2.2.1 The Chain Breaking Antioxidants (Α Topocherol, 

Carotenoids, Flavonoids, Ubiquinol) 10

2.2.2 Glutathione Peroxidase And Glutathione Reductase 10

2.3 Types And Or Sources of Antioxidants 12

2.3.1 Nutrients Based Antioxidants 14 Vitamin A 14 Beta-Carotene (Lycopene) 14 Vitamin C 15 Vitamin E (Tocopherols) 16 Flavonoids 17 Selenium 19 

3.0 Physiological Effects of Free Radicals in Human Beings 20

3.1 Oxidative Stress 20

3.2 3.2 Cancer 21

3.3 Ageing 22

3.4 Cardiovascular Diseases 23

4.0 Conclusion 25


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Ezunagu, M (2021). Biochemical Changes In Malaria Episodes. Retrieved March 06, 2021, from

MLA 8th

Michael, Ezunagu. "Biochemical Changes In Malaria Episodes", 22 Feb. 2021, . Accessed 06 Mar. 2021.


Michael, Ezunagu. "Biochemical Changes In Malaria Episodes".,, 22 Feb. 2021. Web. 06 Mar. 2021. < >.


Michael, Ezunagu. "Biochemical Changes In Malaria Episodes" (2021). Accessed March 06, 2021.