Biogas and Its Potential in the Local Communities: Case Study of Warr Sub-County, Zombo District West Nile Uganda

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION

APPROVAL

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS v

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES xi

ABBREVIATIONS

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE 1

1.0 Introduction 1

1.1 Background to study 1

1.2 Problem Statement 2

1.3 Objectives of the Study 2

1.3.1 General Objective 2

1.3.2 Specific Objectives 2

1.4 Research Questions 3

1.5. Scope of the Study 3

1.5.lGeographical scope 3

1.5.2. Content scope 3

1.5.3 Time scope 3

1.6 Significance of the research 3

1.7 Conceptual Frame Work 4

v

CHAPTER TWO..., 5

LITERATURE REVIEW.~5

2.0 Introduction 5

2.1 Biogas Systems 5

2.2. Anaerobic Process 6

2.3 Environment and Development in Uganda 6

2.3.1 Energy issues 6

2.3.2 Environmental problems 7

2.3.3 Renewable energy in Uganda 7

2.4 The Uganda Domestic Biogas Programme 8

2.4.1 Favorable conditions 8

2.4.2 Expected benefits 9

2.5 Biogas digesters in Sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the world 10

2.6 Demand for small scale biogas digesters in Uganda 11

2.7 Risks associated with the use of small scale biogas 12

2.8 The Three Main Designs of Biogas Digester 12

2.8.1 Fixed Dome Design 12

2.8.2 Floating Drum Design 13

2.8.3 Tubular Design 14

2.9 Availability of materials for construction of biogas digesters 16

2.10 Integration of biogas for household usage 16

2.11 Co-digestion of feedstock’s for maximum return 17

2.12 Socio-economic issues 18

2.13 Socio-Economic Constraints to Adoption of Biogas 19

2.13.1 Costs and ability to pay 19

2.13.2 Availability of feedstock 20

2.13.3 Availability of land and water 20

vi

2.13.4. Education, awareness, and type of household head 21

2.13.5. Marketing approach 21

2.13.6 Potential Environmental Benefits OfA Biogas 21

2.13.7 Potential Risks To The Environment 22

CHAPTER THREF 23

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 23

3.0 Introduction 23

3.1 Type of research method 23

3.2The Study Area and Target Group 23

3.3 Sample Size 24

3.4 Source of Data 24

3.4.1 Primary data 24

3.4.2 Secondary Data 24

3.5 Data collection methods 25

3.5.1 The Interview 25

3.5.2 Observations 25

3.6 Data Analysis 25

3.7 Validity and Reliability 25

3.8 Ethical consideration 26

3.9 Limitations of the Study 26

3.10 Maintaining Objectivity 26

CHAPTER FOUR 27

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS ,, 27

4.0 Introduction 27

4.1 Energy Situation in Rural Villages: War-Sub County 27

vii

4.1.1 Energy Sources in the Communities 27

4.1 .2Scarcity of firewood 28

4.1.3 Local strategies to cope up with the wood scarcity 29

4.1.4Summery 30

4.2 Biogas Feasibility Indicators and Needs 30

4.2.1 Introduction 30

4.2.2 Awareness; 30

4.2.3Attitudes toward Biogas 31

4.2.4 Household Social Economic Assessment 32

4.2.5Livestock Keeping 33

4.2. 6Assessment on availability of resources 33

4.3 Potentials of Biogas in communities 33

4.3.1 Factors that affect Biogas Production 33

4.3.2 Field Survey of materials requirement for biogas 34

4.3.3 Components of Biogas Plant 34

4.3.4 Selection of Model, Design and Construction 35

4.4 Biogas Design and Dimensions 35

4.4.1 Calculations 35

4.4.2 Gas requirement per day 36

4.4.3 Total volume of gas required~ 36

4.5 Benefits of Biogas~ 36

CHAPTER FIVE,.,.....~ 37

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 37

5.0 Introduction 37

5.1 Findings 37

viii

5.1.1 Findings on objective one: To examine the energy situation in the communities of

Warr Sub County, Zombo district 37

5.1.2 Findings on objective two: To assess the biogas feasibility indicators in the rural

communities of Warr Sub County, Zombo district 38

To this objective, The biogas feasibility assessment was done using indicators such as; the

degree of awareness, attitudes toward biogas usage, social economic situation, availability

of materials, livestock keeping and natural resource availability. The finding is as shown

below 38

5.1.3 Findings on objective three: To assess the technical potential of biogas system in the

rural communities of Waif Sub County, Zombo district 39

5.2 Conclusion 40

5.2 Recommendations 40

5.3 Areas for Further Study 41

REFERENCES 42

APPENDICES 46

APPENDIX 1: HOUSEHOLDS QUESTIONNAIRE ABOUT BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY;

46

APPENDIX II: FIELD BUDGET 53

ABSTRACT Accelerated population growth and emerging alternate use for energy has threatened the world energy supply resulting in the thirst for alternative energy. One of such alternative source of energy is the use of Biogas. This study examined the potential of biogas usage by rural community in Warr Sub County, Zombo district, by first examining the energy situations and then assessing the biogas feasibility indicators and the technical potential of biogas usage in the area. The research design was exploratory which was achieved by use of a single qualitative method of triangulation which involved the use of questionnaires, interviews, administrative and other sources such as journals, internet resources and text books in libraries. The findings confirmed that the available sources of energy is wood fuel (firewood) which is mostly used by over 95.5% of the households, followed by cow dung, crop residue and paraffin. The feasibility indicators showed biogas has never been used in area before and there was limited knowledge about it, majority (70%) had positive attitude, and there is ideal environmental factors (temperature and topography) for digester constructions. The socialeconomic situation was a major limiting factor due to very low income level. The assessment of the technical potential revealed that the raw material such as animal waste and water was available for majority households. The average number of cows per household was found to be 5, and the quantity of dung per cow was experimentally estimated to be 10Kg per day. The average number of people per household was 7. However the success of a biogas plant in the rural areas would depend on the selection of the plant design, size, site, materials of construction, type of plant, method of construction and acceptability as discuss in the findings.

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APA

Frontiers, E. & GODSWIL, O (2022). Biogas and Its Potential in the Local Communities: Case Study of Warr Sub-County, Zombo District West Nile Uganda. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/biogas-and-its-potential-in-the-local-communities-case-study-of-warr-sub-county-zombo-district-west-nile-uganda

MLA 8th

Frontiers, Edu, and ONEGGIU GODSWIL "Biogas and Its Potential in the Local Communities: Case Study of Warr Sub-County, Zombo District West Nile Uganda" Afribary. Afribary, 25 Aug. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/biogas-and-its-potential-in-the-local-communities-case-study-of-warr-sub-county-zombo-district-west-nile-uganda. Accessed 02 Oct. 2022.

MLA7

Frontiers, Edu, and ONEGGIU GODSWIL . "Biogas and Its Potential in the Local Communities: Case Study of Warr Sub-County, Zombo District West Nile Uganda". Afribary, Afribary, 25 Aug. 2022. Web. 02 Oct. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/biogas-and-its-potential-in-the-local-communities-case-study-of-warr-sub-county-zombo-district-west-nile-uganda >.

Chicago

Frontiers, Edu and GODSWIL, ONEGGIU . "Biogas and Its Potential in the Local Communities: Case Study of Warr Sub-County, Zombo District West Nile Uganda" Afribary (2022). Accessed October 02, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/biogas-and-its-potential-in-the-local-communities-case-study-of-warr-sub-county-zombo-district-west-nile-uganda