Characterization of the Heart in Hypertensive Patients using Ultrasound

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ABSTRACT

This research is conducted so as to know the importance of ultrasonography (Echocardiography) in the control, follow-up & the diagnosis of the different types of cardiac complications of hypertension (the impact of HTN on the heart muscles, valves and blood supply). The data was collected from Ribat teaching hospital, using an echocardiographic machine. This includes the left atrium, the left ventricular diameter in both systolic and diastolic phases as well as the valvular diameters, ejection fraction and SPSA. This study is about the effect of HTN on the heart anatomy and function. The first chapter is an introductory phrase about the key words of the title as well as the general and specific objectives of the study to enumerate the steps and the variables of the study; this is after showing us the story of the problem and the justification to conduct it and why about the heart effects in HTN. An overview of the study is added in this chapter. The second chapter gives us the previous scientific literature and researches, also includes anatomy, physiology, pathology, normal sonographic appearance of the heart and the normal cardiac measurements using M-mode. In the third chapter the technical methods and tools as well as the materials and procedures important to collect the data are mentioned, also the technique and the statistical methods used, SPSS version 16 by which the data has been tabulated represented and analyzed using Chi2 test. The fourth chapter is about the results and data analysis. The last chapter describes the discussion, recommendations and conclusion. In the discussion we found that there is a relationship between a high blood pressure or HTN and the changes in the anatomy and function of the heart ranging from week to strong one which reflected by a significant chi square test (tables 11 & 12).Our strong recommendation to all health workers that, the use of echocardiography in their diagnosis and follow up of hypertensive heart diseases is mandatory. Also there is strong relationship between age & LVH, seen in the crosstab tables. This chapter also includes the bibliographic references as well as the appendixes (1-2-3).



LIST OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………………………… …..…..8

CHAPTER ONE

1-1 INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………..…9

1-2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ………………...............................................................12

1-3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE…………………………………………………………………...13

1-4 THESES OVERVIEW…………………………………………………………….................14

CHAPTER TWO

2-1 LITRATURE REVEW ……………………………………………………………….…15

-ANATOMY…………………………………………………………………………………15

-PHYSIOLOGY…………………………………………………………………………...…16

-PATHOLOGY………………………………………………………………….………….. 18

2-2 NORMAL SONOGRAOHIC APPEARANCE OF THE HEART…………..…………..24

-NORMAL CARDIAC MEASUREMENT………………………………………….……….28

2-3 PREVIOUS STUDIES……………………………………………………………...…….29

CHAPTER THREE (MATERIALS AND METHODS)

3-1 MATERIALS & TOOLS………………………………………………………………..32

3-2 METHODS………………………………………………………………………………32

3-3 INCLUSION CRITERIA………………………………………………………………..32

3-4 EXCLUSION CRITERIA……………………………………………………………….32

3-5 ULTRASOUND TECHNIQUE OF THE HEART…….…………………………….….33

3-6 STATISTICS……………………………………………..…………………….................33

CHAPTER FOUR

DISCRIPTIVE STATISTIC…………………………………………………………………34

RESULTS & ANALYSIS……………………………………………………...……………43

CHATER FIVE

5-1 DISCUSSION…………………………………………………………………………...48

5-2 RECOMMENDATION……………………………………………………………….…51

5-3 CONCLUSION……………………………………………………………………….…52

5-4 REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………..…52

APPENDIX 1 MACHINE.………………………………………………………………....55

NORMAL ECHO TEMLATE………………………………………………………………56

DATA COLLECTION SHEET……………………………………………………………..57

IMPORTANT ABREVIATIONS…………………………………………………………...58

APPENDIX 2 IMAGES………………………….………………………………………..59

APPENDIX 3 THE QUESTIONNAIRE…………...…………………………….………...76

PATIENT AGREEMENT………………………………………………………….………..77

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APA

Consults, E. & MOHAMMED, A (2022). Characterization of the Heart in Hypertensive Patients using Ultrasound. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/characterization-of-the-heart-in-hypertensive-patients-using-ultrasound

MLA 8th

Consults, Education, and ASHRAF MOHAMMED "Characterization of the Heart in Hypertensive Patients using Ultrasound" Afribary. Afribary, 07 Nov. 2022, https://afribary.com/works/characterization-of-the-heart-in-hypertensive-patients-using-ultrasound. Accessed 07 Dec. 2022.

MLA7

Consults, Education, and ASHRAF MOHAMMED . "Characterization of the Heart in Hypertensive Patients using Ultrasound". Afribary, Afribary, 07 Nov. 2022. Web. 07 Dec. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/characterization-of-the-heart-in-hypertensive-patients-using-ultrasound >.

Chicago

Consults, Education and MOHAMMED, ASHRAF . "Characterization of the Heart in Hypertensive Patients using Ultrasound" Afribary (2022). Accessed December 07, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/characterization-of-the-heart-in-hypertensive-patients-using-ultrasound