COMMON FINDINGS IN LIVER AND KIDNEYS OF PATIENTS UNDERGOING ULTRASOUND EXAMINATION IN ASABA NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

This study was designed to evaluate the common findings in the liver and kidney of patients undergoing ultrasound in Asaba urban. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the common findings in these organs and to correlate the findings with age. I had a total of 277 patients and some had two findings, one in the liver and another in the kidneys.Findings in the kidneys observed were hydronephrosis, nephropathy, renal cyst, renal fibrolipomatosis, nephrolithiasis, nephritis, pyelonephritis, chronic kidney disease, chronic renal failure, multicystic kidney, renal sinus fat, renal parenchymal disease, ectopic kidney, hypoplastic kidney, renal calculus, polycystic kidney, nephrotic syndrome, and pyonephrosis.  It was found out that nephropathy had the highest occurrence with a frequency of 33(23.7%) followed by both renal cyst and hydronephrosis with an occurrence of 30(21.6%).In relation to age, the age range 31-40 had the highest frequency of 29 followed by age range of 41-50 with a frequency of 27 and the least is 81-90 with a frequency of 2.For the liver the findings are fatty liver, hepatomegaly, liver cirrhosis, hemangioma, hepatosplenomegaly, hepatoma, plcc,liver metastases, liver cyst, liver abscess. Hepatomegaly has the highest occurring frequency of 46(30.8%) followed by fatty liver with a frequency of 31(20.8%).In the age distribution,the age with the highest occurrence is the age range of 51-60 with a frequency of 38, this is followed by age range of 31-40. The age range with the least occurring frequency is 81-90 with zero frequency. I recommend that ultrasound should be used as the first line of diagnosis in the liver and kidney pathologies because of its availability, cheapness, and level of diagnostic accuracy.
 
LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Findings in the kidney with their frequency of occurrence and percentages.
Table 2: Gender Distribution of Patients with findings in the kidney.
Table 3: Age Distribution of Patients with findings in the kidney
Table 4: Findings in the liver with their frequency of occurrence and percentages.
Table 5: Gender Distribution of Patients with findings in the liver
Table 6: Age Distribution of Patients with findings in the liver.
Table 7: Chi-square evaluation of the common findings in the liver and kidney of patients undergoing ultrasound in Asaba Urban.
Table 8: evaluates the correlation of patient age with ultrasonic findings in the kidneys using Pearson correlation.
Table 9: evaluates the correlation of patient age with ultrasonic findings in the liver using Pearson correlation.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE------------------------------------------------------------- i
APPROVAL PAGE------------------------------------------------------ii
CERTIFICATION------------------------------------------------------- iii
DEDICATION------------------------------------------------------------iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT---------------------------------------------- v
ABSTRACT---------------------------------------------------------------vi
LIST OF TABLES------------------------------------------------------vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS-----------------------------------------------vii

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Introduction--------------------------------------------------------- 1
1.2 Statement of problem---------------------------------------------- 2
1.3 Objective of study-------------------------------------------------- 3
1.4 Significance of study----------------------------------------------- 3
1.5 Scope of study------------------------------------------------------ 3
1.6 Literature review --------------------------------------------------- 3
CHAPTER TWO: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
2.1 Brief Anatomy of the liver--------------------------------------- 15
2.2 Sonographic Presentation of the liver-------------------------- 19
2.3 Liver pathologies-------------------------------------------------- 20
2.4 Brief anatomy of the kidney------------------------------------- 26
2.5 Sonographic presentation of the kidney------------------------ 27
2.6 Normal variants--------------------------------------------------- 28
2.7 Kidney pathologies----------------------------------------------- 29 
CHAPTER THREE
3.1 Research design-------------------------------------------------- 32
3.2 Sample population and sampling procedure ------------------ 32 
3.2 Source of Data----------------------------------------------------- 33
3.3 Method of Data collection--------------------------------------- 33
CHAPTER FOUR
Data analysis and Presentation------------------------ ----------------34
CHAPTER FIVE
4.1 Discussion of findings-------------------------------------------- 42
4.2 Summary of findings--------------------------------------------- 44
4.3 Limitations of study---------------------------------------------- 45
4.3 Recommendations------------------------------------------------ 45
4.4 Areas of further studies------------------------------------------- 46
4.5 Conclusion--------------------------------------------------------- 46
REFERENCES
APPENDIX

INTRODUCTION

The kidney and liver are organs situated in the abdominal region of the body. The liver located in the right hypochondria, the epigastrium and some part of the left hypochondria while the kidneys lie on the upper part of the posterior abdominal wall 1.Ultrasound is often the first line of investigation for suspected liver or kidney pathology and the decision to proceed to secondary investigative procedures such as further radiological or histological are frequently determined by the findings of the initial ultrasound scan. Ultrasound is used the diagnosis, staging and monitoring of liver disorders and also contributes to the treatment with ultrasound- guided invasive procedures.
Increasingly, ultrasound is also a reliable tool for more focused, complex examinations. Advancement in technology and techniques now resulting to improved diagnostic accuracy and are increasingly obviating the need for further radiology2.
. The common findings in the liver are many and include benign focal liver lesions, simple cyst, complex cysts, poly cystic liver, Hydatid cyst, Abscesses, hematoma, haemangioma, Adenoma etc. 3.The dilemma in liver diseases is that some of them are terminal diseases like hepatic metastases, alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The common findings in the kidney include hydronephrosis, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, polycystic kidney disease, and pyelonephritis. etc4. 
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APA

Ugwu, A. (2018). COMMON FINDINGS IN LIVER AND KIDNEYS OF PATIENTS UNDERGOING ULTRASOUND EXAMINATION IN ASABA NIGERIA. Afribary. Retrieved from https://afribary.com/works/common-findings-in-liver-and-kidneys-of-patients-undergoing-ultrasound-examination-in-asaba-nigeria-1572

MLA 8th

Ugwu, Anderson "COMMON FINDINGS IN LIVER AND KIDNEYS OF PATIENTS UNDERGOING ULTRASOUND EXAMINATION IN ASABA NIGERIA" Afribary. Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018, https://afribary.com/works/common-findings-in-liver-and-kidneys-of-patients-undergoing-ultrasound-examination-in-asaba-nigeria-1572. Accessed 10 Aug. 2022.

MLA7

Ugwu, Anderson . "COMMON FINDINGS IN LIVER AND KIDNEYS OF PATIENTS UNDERGOING ULTRASOUND EXAMINATION IN ASABA NIGERIA". Afribary, Afribary, 29 Jan. 2018. Web. 10 Aug. 2022. < https://afribary.com/works/common-findings-in-liver-and-kidneys-of-patients-undergoing-ultrasound-examination-in-asaba-nigeria-1572 >.

Chicago

Ugwu, Anderson . "COMMON FINDINGS IN LIVER AND KIDNEYS OF PATIENTS UNDERGOING ULTRASOUND EXAMINATION IN ASABA NIGERIA" Afribary (2018). Accessed August 10, 2022. https://afribary.com/works/common-findings-in-liver-and-kidneys-of-patients-undergoing-ultrasound-examination-in-asaba-nigeria-1572